Data files and supplementary information relating to Allan et al. (2014) GRL and Liu et al. (2015) manuscripts.


Version 2 data DEEP-C data products

(Updated files, 18th February 2016)

DEEP-C reconstructed top of atmosphere radiative energy fluxes and surface downward energy flux have been updated from Liu et al. (2015) to (i) use geodetic weighting which is required to accurately estimate the global and hemispheric energy imbalance and (ii) extend the time series from January 1985 to May 2015 using CERES Edition 2.8 data.

Version 3.0 products available
Version 2 products below.

  • Further details and additional links to the data are available here
  • Please cite Allan et al. (2014) when using TOA radiative fluxes and Liu et al. (2015) when using surface fluxes:

    Allan, R. P., Liu, C., Loeb, N. G., Palmer, M. D., Roberts, M., Smith, D. and Vidale, P.-L. (2014) Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985-2012. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(15), p. 5588-5597, doi: 10.1002/2014GL060962

    Liu, C., Allan, R. P., Berrisford, P., Mayer, M. , Hyder , P. , Loeb, N. , Smith, D. , Vidale, P.-L. and Edwards, J. M. (2015) Combining satellite observations and reanalysis energy transports to estimate global net surface energy fluxes 1985-2012. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. ISSN 2169-8996 doi: 10.1002/2015JD023264

    Above: Schematic showing estimates of energy flows in the climate system in petawatts (PW: millions of billions of watts of energy flux) using the Version 2 geodetic weight product from Liu et al. (2015) for June 2000 to May 2015 and additional data (see description) and the location of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).


    Supplementary information and figures relating to Liu et al. (2015) JGR.
    See also the NERC DEEP-C project

    DATA FILES relating to Liu et al. (2015); please use updated version above:

    Monthly mean reconstructed radiative fluxes (Wm-2) - NetCDF (200 MB/file).

    Top of Atmosphere Downward Flux (updated from Allan et al., 2014)
    Surface Downward Flux - Fmass Method
    Additional data:
    Surface Downward Flux - Fres Method
    MERRA derived Surface Downward Flux

    Supplementary information and figures relating to Allan et al. (2014) GRL.
    See also NCAS highlight and the NERC DEEP-C project

    CORRECTIONS:
    1) The following correction was made on the 4th November 2014: In Table 2, footnote a and b should read:
    aUPSCALE means and standard deviation for 1986-2011
    bAMIP5 means and standard deviation for 1985-2008

    2) 12th March 2015: a minor error was identified where the CERES data at 0oE were not included in the interpolated when re-gridding.
    This has now been corrected (updated files below) although the effect on the results is very small and can be neglected.

    Please note that we used CERES version EBAF-v2.7 and not v2.8 as stated in the text of the uncorrected accepted version. Files below refer to CERES EBAF-v2.7 unless stated otherwise.

    Global monthly mean values (Wm-2) from OBS reconstruction and model simulations - ascii text (missing data = -99999).

    NET_monthly_1985JAN_2012DEC.txt | Updated (Correction 2): NET_monthly_1985JAN_2012DEC_new.txt
    ASR_monthly_1985JAN_2012DEC.txt | Updated (Correction 2): ASR_monthly_1985JAN_2012DEC_new.txt
    OLR_monthly_1985JAN_2012DEC.txt | Updated (Correction 2): OLR_monthly_1985JAN_2012DEC_new.txt

    Updated to CERES EBAFv2.8:
    reconstruct_NET_ASR_OLR_ts.txt | Updated (Correction 2): reconstruct_NET_ASR_OLR_ts_new.txt

    Monthly mean OBS reconstructed radiative fluxes - NetCDF (40 MB).

    reconstruct_NET_1985JAN_2013FEB_anchored.nc | Updated (Correction 2): reconstruct_NET_1985JAN_2013FEB_anchored_new.nc
    reconstruct_ASR_1985JAN_2013FEB_anchored.nc | Updated (Correction 2): reconstruct_ASR_1985JAN_2013FEB_anchored_new.nc
    reconstruct_OLR_1985JAN_2013FEB_anchored.nc | Updated (Correction 2): reconstruct_OLR_1985JAN_2013FEB_anchored_new.nc

    Updated to CERES EBAFv2.8
    reconstruct_NET_1985JAN_2014FEB_anchored.nc | Updated (Correction 2): reconstruct_NET_1985JAN_2014FEB_anchored_new.nc
    reconstruct_ASR_1985JAN_2014FEB_anchored.nc | Updated (Correction 2): reconstruct_ASR_1985JAN_2014FEB_anchored_new.nc
    reconstruct_OLR_1985JAN_2014FEB_anchored.nc | Updated (Correction 2): reconstruct_OLR_1985JAN_2014FEB_anchored_new.nc

    Figures (EPS)

    FIG 01
    FIG 02
    FIG 03

    FIG S1
    FIG S2
    FIG S3
    FIG S4
    FIG S5
    FIG S6
    FIG S7
    FIG S8
    FIG S9

    Mean NET flux differences (Wm-2) at break points 2000 and 1993

    Differences are <1994-1995> minus <1992-1993> and <2000-2001> minus <1998-1999> respectively.

    UPSCALE ensemble member1992-19931994-1995diff1998-19992000-2001diff
    xgxqe1.04901.83970.79071.89582.51930.6235
    xgxqf0.88921.74010.85091.98082.36100.3801
    xgxqg0.74301.74170.99862.05392.61280.5589
    xgxqh0.80861.66200.85342.01772.47700.4592
    xgxqi0.84751.66350.81602.01262.48980.4773

    AMIP5 Models1992-19931994-1995diff1998-19992000-2001diff
    CanESM2-0.616070.175130.79120.287630.747530.4599
    CNRM0.969041.88180.912811.87182.1070.23519
    GISS-0.696550.481.17661.03671.75650.71976
    HadGEM2-0.611340.167980.779320.523691.0570.5333
    INMCM4-0.44837-0.359210.089158-0.327380.237340.56472
    IPSL0.033371.09571.06230.820981.79280.97182
    MIROC5-0.79823-0.470520.32771-0.1588-0.031160.12764
    MRI-1.686-1.34670.33931-1.346-0.748670.59733
    NorESM10.393391.01360.620190.800571.12320.32266
    MPI-0.160610.319240.479850.217250.704030.48677
    ACCESS1-0.623520.0881540.71167-0.0381110.615480.65359
    BNU2.79383.89471.1013.88394.28650.40266
    CCSM0.180831.52261.34181.27381.41020.13645
    FGOALS0.35011.22920.879060.932081.95981.0277
    GFDL-1.23310.425391.65840.925491.25520.32975

    CMIP5 Models1992-19931994-1995diff1998-19992000-2001diff
    CanESM20.127591.0720.944421.16230.98334-0.17891
    CNRM3.72484.15660.431854.32664.40420.077595
    GISS0.165261.05810.892851.11561.3590.24345
    HadGEM2-0.0614750.647960.709430.780071.21150.43146
    INMCM41.17441.28020.105871.72391.4576-0.26633
    IPSL0.361180.970170.608991.12851.32180.19332
    MIROC50.429261.48861.05941.68491.82530.14041
    MRI0.0589960.909670.850681.00431.07540.071114
    NorESM12.51622.68890.172682.632.70570.075754