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Dielectric constant distribution
|Large particles compared to the wavelength exhibit complex scattering patterns; scattering by large spheres of constant refractive index can be calculated exactly using Mie theory. For very large particles compared to the wavelength (expensive to calculate using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method), the preferential scattering in particular directions leads to rainbows.|
Wikipedia link: Mie theory
This is an animation of the component of the electric field out of the plane of the page.
The direction in which energy is travelling at any instant is proportional to the cross product of the electric and magnetic fields, known as the Poynting vector. The arrows show the direction of the Poynting vector averaged over the simulation, while the colours show its strength.