Professor Michael Lockwood

Professor of Space Environment Physics

Responsibilities:

School Director of Research

Web Pages:

My research: http://www.eiscat.rl.ac.uk/Members/mike/

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Recent Publications:

Jump to: 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 | 1996 | 1995 | 1994 | 1993 | 1992 | 1991 | 1990 | 1989 | 1988 | 1987 | 1986 | 1985 | 1984 | 1983 | 1982 | 1981 | 1980
Number of items: 305.

2014

Lockwood, M. and Owens, M. J. (2014) Implications of the recent low solar minimum for the solar wind during the Maunder minimum. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 781 (1). L7. ISSN 0004-637X doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/781/1/L7

Owens, M. J., Scott, C. J., Lockwood, M., Barnard, L., Harrison, R. G., Nicoll, K., Watt, C. and Bennett, A. J. (2014) Modulation of UK lightning by heliospheric magnetic field polarity. Environmental Research Letters, 9 (11). 115009. ISSN 1748-9326 doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/9/11/115009

Barnard, L., Scott, C., Owens, M., Lockwood, M., Tucker-Hood, K., Thomas, S., Crothers, S., Davies, J. A., Harrison, R., Lintott, C., Simpson, R., O'Donnell, J., Smith, A. M., Waterson, N., Bamford, S., Romeo, F., Kukula, M., Owens, B., Savani, N., Wilkinson, J., Baeten, E., Poeffel, L. and Harder, B. (2014) The Solar Stormwatch CME catalogue: results from the first space weather citizen science project. Space Weather. ISSN 1542-7390 doi: 10.1002/2014SW001119 (In Press)

Huntingford, C., Marsh, T., Scaife, A. A., Kendon, E. J., Hannaford, J., Kay, A. L., Lockwood, M., Prudhomme, C., Reynard, N. S., Parry, S., Lowe, J. A., Screen, J. A., Ward, H. C., Roberts, M., Stott, P. A., Bell, V. A., Bailey, M., Jenkins, A., Legg, T., Otto, F. E. L., Massey, N., Schaller, N., Slingo, J. and Allen, M. R. (2014) Potential influences on the United Kingdom's floods of winter 2013/14. Nature Climate Change, 4 (9). pp. 769-777. ISSN 1758-6798 doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2314

Thomas, S. R., Owens, M. J., Lockwood, M. and Scott, C. J. (2014) Galactic cosmic ray modulation near the heliospheric current sheet. Solar Physics, 289 (7). pp. 2653-2668. ISSN 1573-093X doi: 10.1007/s11207-014-0493-y

Scott, C. J., Harrison, R.G., Owens, M.J., Lockwood, M. and Barnard, L. (2014) Evidence for solar wind modulation of lightning. Environmental Research Letters, 9 (5). 055004. ISSN 1748-9326 doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/9/5/055004

Lockwood, M., Nevanlinna, H., Vokhmyanin, M., Ponyavin, D., Sokolov, S., Barnard, L., Owens, M. J., Harrison, R. G., Rouillard, A. P. and Scott, C. J. (2014) Reconstruction of geomagnetic activity and near-Earth interplanetary conditions over the past 167 yr - Part 3: improved representation of solar cycle 11. Annales Geophysicae, 32 (4). pp. 367-381. ISSN 1432-0576 doi: 10.5194/angeo-32-367-2014

Lockwood, M., Nevanlinna, H., Barnard, L., Owens, M. J., Harrison, R. G., Rouillard, A. P. and Scott, C. J. (2014) Reconstruction of geomagnetic activity and near-Earth interplanetary conditions over the past 167 yr - Part 4: Near-Earth solar wind speed, IMF, and open solar flux. Annales Geophysicae, 32 (4). pp. 383-399. ISSN 1432-0576 doi: 10.5194/angeo-32-383-2014

Thomas, S. R., Owens, M. J. and Lockwood, M. (2014) The 22-Year Hale Cycle in cosmic ray flux: evidence for direct heliospheric modulation. Solar Physics, 289 (1). pp. 407-421. ISSN 0038-0938 doi: 10.1007/s11207-013-0341-5

Lockwood, M., Owens, M. J. and Barnard, L. (2014) Centennial variations in sunspot number, open solar flux and streamer belt width: 1. correction of the sunspot number record since 1874. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 119 (7). pp. 5172-5182. ISSN 2169-9402 doi: 10.1002/2014JA019970

Lockwood, M., Owens, M. J. and Barnard, L. (2014) Centennial variations in sunspot number, open solar flux and streamer belt width: 2. Comparison with the geomagnetic data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 119 (7). pp. 5183-5192. ISSN 2169-9402 doi: 10.1002/2014JA019972

Lockwood, M. and Owens, M. J. (2014) Centennial variations in sunspot number, open solar flux and streamer belt width: 3. Modelling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 119 (7). pp. 5193-5209. ISSN 2169-9402 doi: 10.1002/2014JA019973

Thomas, S. R., Owens, M. J. and Lockwood, M. (2014) Galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere. Astronomy and Geophysics, 55 (5). 5.23-5.25. ISSN 1366-8781 doi: 10.1093/astrogeo/atu214

Owens, M. J., Crooker, N.U. and Lockwood, M. (2014) Solar cycle evolution of dipolar and pseudostreamer belts and their relation to the slow solar wind. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 119 (1). pp. 36-46. ISSN 2169-9402 doi: 10.1002/2013JA019412

2013

Owens, M. J., Crooker, N. U. and Lockwood, M. (2013) Solar origin of heliospheric magnetic field inversions: evidence for coronal loop opening within pseudostreamers. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 118 (5). pp. 1868-1879. ISSN 2169-9402 doi: 10.1002/jgra.50259

Zhang, Q.-H., Zhang, B.-C., Lockwood, M., Hu, H.-Q., Moen, J. I., Ruohoniemi, J. M., Thomas, E.G., Zhang, S.-R., Yang, H.-G., Lui, R. Y., McWilliams, K. A. and Baker, J. B. H. (2013) Direct observations of the evolution of polar cap ionization patches. Science, 339 (6127). pp. 1597-1600. ISSN 1095-9203 doi: 10.1126/science.1231487

Lockwood, M. and Owens, M. J. (2013) Comment on “What causes the flux excess in the heliospheric magnetic field?” by E. J. Smith. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 118 (5). pp. 1880-1887. ISSN 2169-9402 doi: 10.1002/jgra.50223

Aplin, K. L. and Lockwood, M. (2013) Cosmic ray modulation of infra-red radiation in the atmosphere. Environmental Research Letters, 8 (1). 015026. ISSN 1748-9326 doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015026

Zhang, Q.-H., Zhang, B.-C., Moen, J., Lockwood, M., McCrea, I. W., Yang, H.-G., Hu, H.-Q., Liu, R.-Y., Zhang, S.-R. and Lester, M. (2013) Polar cap patch segmentation of the tongue of ionization in the morning convection cell. Geophysical Research Letters, 40 (12). pp. 2918-2922. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1002/grl.50616

Lockwood, M. (2013) Reconstruction and prediction of variations in the open solar magnetic flux and interplanetary conditions. Living Reviews in Solar Physics, 10. lrsp-2013-4. ISSN 1614-4961 doi: 10.12942/lrsp-2013-4

Lockwood, M., Barnard, L., Nevanlinna, H., Owens, M.J., Harrison, R.G., Rouillard, A. P. and Davis, C. J. (2013) Reconstruction of geomagnetic activity and near-Earth interplanetary conditions over the past 167 yr – Part 1: A new geomagnetic data composite. Annales Geophysicae, 31 (11). pp. 1957-1977. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-31-1957-2013

Lockwood, M., Barnard, L., Nevanlinna, H., Owens, M.J., Harrison, R.G., Rouillard, A. P. and Davis, C. J. (2013) Reconstruction of geomagnetic activity and near-Earth interplanetary conditions over the past 167 yr – Part 2: A new reconstruction of the interplanetary magnetic field. Annales Geophysicae, 31 (11). pp. 1979-1992. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-31-1979-2013

2012

Owens, M. J., Usoskin, I. and Lockwood, M. (2012) Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays during grand solar minima: past and future variations. Geophysical Research Letters, 39 (19). L19102. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/2012GL053151

Lockwood, M., Owens, M., Barnard, L., Davis, C. J. and Thomas, S. (2012) Solar cycle 24: what is the sun up to? Astronomy and Geophysics, 53 (3). 3.09-3.15. ISSN 1366-8781 doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4004.2012.53309.x

Davis, C. J., Davies, J. A., Owens, M. and Lockwood, M. (2012) Predicting the arrival of high-speed solar wind streams at Earth using the STEREO Heliospheric Imagers. Space Weather, 10 (2). ISSN 1542-7390 doi: 10.1029/2011SW000737

Owens, M. and Lockwood, M. (2012) Cyclic loss of open solar flux since 1868: the link to heliospheric current sheet tilt and implications for the Maunder Minimum. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 117 (A4). ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2011JA017193

Zhang, Q.-H., Dunlop, M. W., Lockwood, M., Lavraud, B., Bogdanova, Y. V., Hasegawa, H., Yang, H.-G., Liu, R.-Y., Hu, H.-Q., Zhang, B.-C., Pu, Z.-Y., Yang, Z.-W., Wang, J., Taylor, M. G. G. T., Berchem, J., Constantinescu, D., Volwerk, M., Frey, H., Fazakerley, A. N., Shen, C., Shi, J.-K., Sibeck, D., Escoubet, P. and Wild, J. A. (2012) Inner plasma structure of the low-latitude reconnection layer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117 (A8). A08205. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2012JA017622

Lockwood, M. (2012) Solar induced climate effects. In: Meyers, R. A. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. Springer. ISBN 9780387894690

Lockwood, M. (2012) Solar influence on global and regional climates. Surveys in Geophysics, 33 (3-4). pp. 503-534. ISSN 1573-0956 doi: 10.1007/s10712-012-9181-3

Jones, G. S., Lockwood, M. and Stott, P. A. (2012) What influence will future solar activity changes over the 21st century have on projected global near-surface temperature changes? Journal of Geophysical Research, 117 (D5). D05103. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2011JD017013

2011

Harrison, R. G., Ambaum, M. P. H. and Lockwood, M. (2011) Cloud base height and cosmic rays. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 467 (2134). pp. 2777-2791. ISSN 1471-2946 doi: 10.1098/rspa.2011.0040

Barnard, L., Lockwood, M., Hapgood, M. A., Owens, M. J., Davis, C. J. and Steinhilber, F. (2011) Predicting space climate change. Geophysical Research Letters, 38. L16103. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/2011GL048489

Dunlop, M. W., Zhang, Q.-H., Bogdanova, Y. V., Lockwood, M., Pu, Z., Hasegawa, H., Wang, J., Taylor, M. G. G. T., Berchem, J., Lavraud, B., Eastwood, J., Volwerk, M., Shen, C., Shi, J.-K., Constantinescu, D., Frey, H., Fazakerley, A., Sibeck, D., Escoubet, P., Wild, J. A. and Liu, Z.-X. (2011) Extended magnetic reconnection across the dayside magnetopause. Physical Review Letters, 107 (2). 025004. ISSN 0031-9007 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.025004

Lockwood, M. and Owens, M. J. (2011) Centennial changes in the heliospheric magnetic field and open solar flux: the consensus view from geomagnetic data and cosmogenic isotopes and its implications. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116 (A4). A04109. ISSN 2156-2202 doi: 10.1029/2010JA016220

Owens, M. J., Crooker, N. U. and Lockwood, M. (2011) How is open solar magnetic flux lost over the solar cycle? Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 116. A04111. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2010JA016039

Zhang, Q.-H., Zhang, B.-C., Liu, R.-Y., Dunlop, M. W., Lockwood, M., Moen, J., Yang, H.-G., Hu, H.-Q., Hu, Z.-J., Liu, S.-L., McCrea, I. W. and Lester, M. (2011) On the importance of interplanetary magnetic field (By)on polar cap patch formation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116. A05308. ISSN 2156-2202 doi: 10.1029/2010JA016287

Owens, M. J., Lockwood, M., Barnard, L. and Davis, C. J. (2011) Solar cycle 24: implications for energetic particles and long-term space climate change. Geophysical Research Letters, 38. L19106. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/2011GL049328

Lockwood, M. (2011) Solar physics: shining a light on solar impacts. Nature Climate Change, 1 (2). pp. 98-99. ISSN 1758-678X doi: 10.1038/nclimate1096

Lockwood, M. (2011) Was UV spectral solar irradiance lower during the recent low sunspot minimum? Journal of Geophysical Research, 116. D16103. ISSN 2156-2202 doi: 10.1029/2010JD014746

Zhang, Q.-H., Dunlop, M. W., Lockwood, M., Holme, R., Kamide, Y., Baumjohann, W., Liu, R.-Y., Yang, H.-G., Woodfield, E. E., Hu, H.-Q., Zhang, B.-C. and Liu, S.-L. (2011) The distribution of the ring current: Cluster observations. Annales Geophysicae, 29 (9). pp. 1655-1662. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-29-1655-2011

Lockwood, M., Owens, M. J., Barnard, L., Davis, C. J. and Steinhilber, F. (2011) The persistence of solar activity indicators and the descent of the sun into Maunder Minimum conditions. Geophysical Research Letters, 38. L22105. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/2011GL049811

Lockwood, M., Harrison, R. G., Owens, M. J., Barnard, L., Woollings, T. and Steinhilber, F. (2011) The solar influence on the probability of relatively cold UK winters in the future. Environmental Research Letters, 6 (3). 034004. ISSN 1748-9326 doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034004

Barnard, L. and Lockwood, M. (2011) A survey of gradual solar energetic particle events. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116. A05103. ISSN 2156-2202 doi: 10.1029/2010JA016133

2010

Woollings, T., Lockwood, M., Masato, G., Bell, C. and Gray, L. (2010) Enhanced signature of solar variability in Eurasian winter climate. Geophysical Research Letters, 37. L20805. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/2010GL044601

Zhang, Q.H. , Dunlop, M.W., Lockwood, M., Liu, R.Y., Hu, H.Q., Yang, H.G., Hu, Z.J., Bogdanova, Y.V., Shen, C. , Zhang, B.C., Han, D.S., Liu, S.L., McCrea, I.W. and Lester, M. (2010) Simultaneous observations of reconnection pulses at Cluster and their effects on the cusp aurora seen at Chinese Yellow River Station. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115. A10237. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2010JA015526

Lockwood, M., Bell, C., Woollings, T., Harrison, R. G., Gray, L. J. and Haigh, J. D. (2010) Top-down solar modulation of climate: evidence for centennial-scale change. Environmental Research Letters, 5 (3). 034008. ISSN 1748-9326 doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/5/3/034008

Lockwood, M., Harrison, R. G., Woollings, T. J. and Solanki, S. K. (2010) Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity? Environmental Research Letters, 5 (2). 024001. ISSN 1748-9326 doi: DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/5/2/024001

Rouillard, A. P., Davies, J. A., Lavraud, B., Forsyth, R. J., Savani, N. P., Bewsher, D., Brown, D. S., Sheeley, N. R., Davis, C. J., Harrison, R. A., Howard, R. A., Vourlidas, A., Lockwood, M., Crothers, S. R. and Eyles, C. J. (2010) Intermittent release of transients in the slow solar wind: 1. Remote sensing observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115. A04103. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2009JA014471

Rouillard, A. P., Lavraud, B., Davies, J. A., Savani, N. P., Burlaga, L. F., Forsyth, R. J., Sauvaud, J.-A., Opitz, A., Lockwood, M., Luhmann, J. G., Simunac, K. D. C., Galvin, A. B., Davis, C. J. and Harrison, R. A. (2010) Intermittent release of transients in the slow solar wind: 2. In situ evidence. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115. A04104. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2009JA014472

Lockwood, M. (2010) Solar change and climate: an update in the light of the current exceptional solar minimum. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 466 (2114). pp. 303-329. ISSN 1364-5021 doi: 10.1098/rspa.2009.0519

Duplissy, J., Enghoff, M. B., Aplin, K. L., Arnold, F., Aufmhoff, H., Avngaard, M., Baltensperger, U., Bondo, T., Bingham, R., Carslaw, K., Curtius, J., David, A., Fastrup, B., Gagné, S., Hahn, F., Harrison, R. G., Kellett, B., Kirkby, J., Kulmala, M., Laakso, L., Laaksonen, A., Lillestol, E., Lockwood, M., Mäkelä, J., Makhmutov, V., Marsh, N. D., Nieminen, T., Onnela, A., Pedersen, E., Pedersen, J. O. P., Polny, J., Reichl, U., Seinfeld, J. H., Sipilä, M., Stozhkov, Y., Stratmann, F., Svensmark, H., Svensmark, J., Veenhof, R., Verheggen, B., Viisanen, Y., Wagner, P. E., Wehrle, G., Weingartner, E., Wex, H., Wilhelmsson, M. and Winkler, P. M. (2010) Results from the CERN pilot CLOUD experiment. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10 (4 ). pp. 1635-1647. ISSN 1680-7316 doi: 10.5194/acp-10-1635-2010

Zhang, Q.-H., Dunlop, M. W., Lockwood, M., Liu, R.-Y., Hu, H.-Q., Yang, H.-G., Hu, Z.-J., Bogdanova, Y. V., Shen, C., Zhang, B.-C., Han, D.-S., Liu, S.-L., McCrea, I. W. and Lester, M. (2010) Simultaneous observations of reconnection pulses at Cluster and their effects on the cusp aurora observed at the Chinese Yellow River station. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115 (A10237). ISSN 2156-2202 doi: 10.1029/2010JA015526

Gray, L. J., Beer, J., Geller, M., Haigh, J.D., Lockwood, M., Matthes, K., Cubasch, U., Fleitmann, D., Harrison, G., Hood, L. , Luterbacher, J. , Meehl, G.A. , Shindell, D. , van Geel, B. and White, W. (2010) Solar influences on climate. Reviews of Geophysics, 48 (RG4001). ISSN 8755-1209 doi: 10.1029/2009RG000282

2009

Lockwood, M., Owens, M. J. and Rouillard, A. P. (2009) Excess open solar magnetic flux from satellite data: 1. Analysis of the third perihelion Ulysses pass. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114. A11103. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2009JA014449

Lockwood, M., Owens, M. J. and Rouillard, A. P. (2009) Excess open solar magnetic flux from satellite data: 2. A survey of kinematic effects. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114. A11104. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2009JA014450

Lockwood, M. and Owens, M. J. (2009) The accuracy of using the Ulysses result of the spatial invariance of the radial heliospheric field to compute the open solar flux. The Astrophysical Journal, 701 (2). pp. 964-973. ISSN 0004-637X doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/701/2/964

Rouillard, A. P., Savani, N. P., Davies, J. A., Lavraud, B., Forsyth, R. J., Morley, S. K., Opitz, A., Sheeley, N. R., Burlaga, L. F., Sauvaud, J.-A., Simunac, K. D. C., Luhmann, J. G., Galvin, A. B., Crothers, S. R., Davis, C. J., Harrison, R. A., Lockwood, M., Eyles, C. J., Bewsher, D. and Brown, D. S. (2009) A multispacecraft analysis of a small-scale transient entrained by solar wind streams. Solar Physics, 256 (1-2). pp. 307-326. ISSN 0038-0938 doi: 10.1007/s11207-009-9329-6

Davis, C. J., Davies, J. A., Lockwood, M., Rouillard, A. P., Eyles, C. J. and Harrison, R. A. (2009) Stereoscopic imaging of an Earth-impacting solar coronal mass ejection: a major milestone for the STEREO mission. Geophysical Research Letters, 36. L08102. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/2009GL038021

Lockwood, M., Hairston, M., Finch, I. and Rouillard, A. (2009) Transpolar voltage and polar cap flux during the substorm cycle and steady convection events. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114 (A1). A01210. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2008JA013697

Cai, H.T., McCrea , I.W., Dunlop, M.W., Davies, J.A., Bogdanova, Y.V., Pitout, F., Milan, S.E., Lockwood, M. and Ma, S.Y. (2009) Cusp observations during a sequence of fast IMF B-Z reversals. Annales Geophysicae, 27 (7). pp. 2721-2737. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-27-2721-2009

Lockwood, M., Rouillard, A. P. and Finch, I. D. (2009) The rise and fall of open solar flux during the current grand solar maximum. The Astrophysical Journal, 700 (2). pp. 937-944. ISSN 0004-637X doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/937

Rouillard, A. P., Davies, J. A., Forsyth, R. J., Savani, N. P., Sheeley, N. R., Thernisien, A., Zhang, T.-L., Howard, R. A., Anderson, B., Carr, C. M., Tsang, S., Lockwood, M., Scott, C. J., Harrison, R. A., Bewsher, D., Fränz, M., Crothers, S. R., Eyles, C. J., Brown, D. S., Whittaker, I., Hapgood, M., Coates, A. J., Jones, G. H., Grande, M., Frahm, R. A. and Winningham, J. D. (2009) A solar storm observed from the Sun to Venus using the STEREO, Venus Express, and MESSENGER spacecraft. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114 (A7). A07106. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2008JA014034

2008

Finch, I. D., Lockwood, M. L. and Rouillard, A. P. (2008) Effects of solar wind magnetosphere coupling recorded at different geomagnetic latitudes: Separation of directly-driven and storage/release systems. Geophysical Research Letters, 35 (21). L21105. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/2008GL035399

Rouillard, A. P., Davies, J. A., Forsyth, R. J., Rees, A., Scott, C. J., Harrison, R. A., Lockwood, M., Bewsher, D., Crothers, S. R., Eyles, C. J., Hapgood, M. and Perry, C. H. (2008) First imaging of corotating interaction regions using the STEREO spacecraft. Geophysical Research Letters, 35 (10). L10110. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/2008GL033767

Lockwood, M. (2008) Recent changes in solar outputs and the global mean surface temperature. III. Analysis of contributions to global mean air surface temperature rise. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 464 (2094). pp. 1387-1404. ISSN 1471-2946 doi: 10.1098/rspa.2007.0348

Lockwood, M. and Fröhlich, C. (2008) Recent oppositely directed trends in solar climate forcings and the global mean surface air temperature. II. Different reconstructions of the total solar irradiance variation and dependence on response time scale. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 464 (2094). pp. 1367-1385. ISSN 1364-5021 doi: 10.1098/rspa.2007.0347

Ham, S.J. , Lee, H. , Lee, J.M., Kim, S.W., Richards, T. and Lockwood, M. (2008) Stray light analysis of SALEX instrument. In: Straka , S. A. (ed.) Optical system contamination: effects, measurements, and control 2008. Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) , 7069. SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, L690. ISBN 9780819472892

Sullivan, J.M., Lockwood, M., Lanchester, B.S. , Kontar, E.P., Ivchenko, N. , Dahlgren, H. and Whiter, D.K. (2008) An optical study of multiple NEIAL events driven by low energy electron precipitation. Annales Geophysicae, 26. pp. 2435-2447. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-26-2435-2008

2007

Rouillard, A. P. and Lockwood, M. (2007) Centennial changes in solar activity and the response of galactic cosmic rays. Advances in Space Research, 40 (7). pp. 1078-1086. ISSN 0273-1177 doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2007.02.096

Rouillard, A. P., Lockwood, M. and Finch, I. (2007) Centennial changes in the solar wind speed and in the open solar flux. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112. A05103. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2006JA012130

Finch, I. and Lockwood, M. (2007) Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling functions on timescales of 1 day to 1 year. Annales Geophysicae, 25 (2). pp. 495-506. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-25-495-2007

Lockwood, M. (2007) What do cosmogenic isotopes tell us about past solar forcing of climate? Space Science Reviews, 125 (1-4). pp. 95-109. ISSN 0038-6308 doi: 10.1007/s11214-006-9049-2

Rouillard, A. P. and Lockwood, M. (2007) The latitudinal effect of corotating interaction regions on galactic cosmic rays. Solar Physics, 245 (1). pp. 191-206. ISSN 0038-0938 doi: 10.1007/s11207-007-9019-1

Carr, C. M., Horbury, T. S., Balogh, A., Bale, S. D., Baumjohann, W., Bravassano, B., Breen, A., Burgess, D., Cargill, P. J., Crooker, N., Erdos, G., Fletcher, L., Forsyth , R. J., Giacolone, J., Glassmeier, K.-H., Hoeksma, J. T., Goldstein, M. L., Lockwood, M., Magnes, W., Maksimovic, M., Marsch, E., Maksimovic, W. H., Murphey, N., Nakariako, V. M., Pachec, J.R., Pincon, J.-L., Riley, P., Russell, C. T., Schwartz , S. J., Szabo , A., Thompson , M., Vainio, R., Velli, M., Vennerstrom, S. , Walsh , R. , Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. and Zank, G. (2007) A magnetometer for the Solar Orbiter mission. In: The Second Solar Orbiter Workshop, January 2007, pp. 41-47. (in "The Second Solar Orbiter Workshop", ed. L. Conroy, ESA Special Publication, ESA-SP-641)

Lockwood, M. and Hapgood, M. (2007) The rough guide to the Moon and Mars. Astronomy and Geophysics, 48 (6). 6.11-6.17. ISSN 1366-8781 doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4004.2007.48611.x

2006

Lockwood, M., Rouillard, A. P., Finch, I. and Stamper, R. (2006) Comment on “TheIDVindex: Its derivation and use in inferring long-term variations of the interplanetary magnetic field strength” by Leif Svalgaard and Edward W. Cliver. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111 (A9). A09109. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2006JA011640

Dunlop, M.W. , Taylor, M.G.G.T. , Davies, J.A., Pu, Z., Fazakerley, A.N., Owen, C.J., Bogdanova, Y.V. , Pitout , F., Laakso, H., Zong , Q. -G. , Shen , C., Nykyri, K., Lavraud , B., Milan, S.E., Liu , Z.-X., Escoubet , C.P., Rème , H. , Carr, C.M., Cargill , P., Phan, T.D., Lockwood, M. and Sonnerup, B. (2006) Comparative Cluster/Double Star observations of the high and low latitude dayside magnetopause. In: Cluster and Double Star Symposium, 5th Anniv. of Cluster, September 2005, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.

Davies, J.A., Dunlop, M.W., Perry, C.H., Lockwood, M., Alexeev, I., Taylor, M.G.G.T., Fazakerley, A.N., Owen, C.J., Marchaudon, A., Friedel, R.H.W., Deng, X.H., Grande, M. and Daly, P.W. (2006) Energetic electron signatures in an active magnetotail plasma sheet. Advances in Space Research, 38 (8). pp. 1608-1614. ISSN 0273-1177 doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2006.02.012

Lockwood, M., Lanchester, B. S., Morley, S. K., Throp, K., Milan, S. E., Lester, M. and Frey, H. U. (2006) Modeling the observed proton aurora and ionospheric convection responses to changes in the IMF clock angle: 2. Persistence of ionospheric convection. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111 (A2). A02306. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2003JA010307

Sullivan, J. M., Ivchenko, N., Lockwood, M., Grydeland, T., Blixt, E. M. and Lanchester, B. S. (2006) Phase calibration of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar interferometer using optical satellite signatures. Annales Geophysicae, 24 (9). pp. 2419-2427. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-24-2419-2006

Morley, S. K. and Lockwood, M. (2006) A numerical model of the ionospheric signatures of time-varying magnetic reconnection: III. Quasi-instantaneous convection responses in the Cowley-Lockwood paradigm. Annales Geophysicae, 24 (3). pp. 961-972. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-24-961-2006

2005

Dunlop, M. W., Taylor, M. G. G. T., Davies, J. A., Owen, C. J., Pitout, F., Fazakerley, A. N., Pu, Z., Laakso, H., Bogdanova, Y. V., Zong, Q.-G., Shen, C., Nykyri, K., Lavraud, B., Milan, S. E., Phan, T. D., Rème, H., Escoubet, C. P., Carr, C. M., Cargill, P., Lockwood, M. and Sonnerup, B. (2005) Coordinated Cluster/Double Star observations of dayside reconnection signatures. Annales Geophysicae, 23 (8). pp. 2867-2875. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-23-2867-2005

Throp, K., Lockwood, M., Lanchester, B. S., Morley, S. K. and Frey, H. U. (2005) Modeling the observed proton aurora and ionospheric convection responses to changes in the IMF clock angle: 1. Persistence of cusp proton aurora. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110 (A12). A12311. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2003JA010306

Lockwood, M., Moen, J., van Eyken, A. P., Davies, J. A., Oksavik, K. and McCrea, I. W. (2005) Motion of the dayside polar cap boundary during substorm cycles: I. Observations of pulses in the magnetopause reconnection rate. Annales Geophysicae, 23 (11). pp. 3495-3511. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-23-3495-2005

Lockwood, M., Davies, J. A., Moen, J., van Eyken, A. P., Oksavik, K., McCrea, I. W. and Lester, M. (2005) Motion of the dayside polar cap boundary during substorm cycles: II. Generation of poleward-moving events and polar cap patches by pulses in the magnetopause reconnection rate. Annales Geophysicae, 23 (11). pp. 3513-3532. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-23-3513-2005

Kahan, M. A., Lee, H., Kim, S.-W., Richards, T., Tosh, I., Morris, N. and Lockwood, M. (2005) Stray-light analysis of Amon-Ra instrument. Proceedings: SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering, 5867. 586706. ISSN 0277-786X doi: 10.1117/12.639585

Morley, S. K. and Lockwood, M. (2005) A numerical model of the ionospheric signatures of time-varying magnetic reconnection: II. Measuring expansions in the ionospheric flow response. Annales Geophysicae, 23 (7). pp. 2501-2510. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-23-2501-2005

Wang, Y., Lee, H., Tosh, I., Morris, N., Lockwood, M., Kim, S.-W., Weng, Z., Ye, S. and Sasian, J. M. (2005) The optomechanical design of Amon-Ra instrument. Proceedings: SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering, 5638. pp. 248-261. ISSN 0277-786X doi: 10.1117/12.573624

2004

Stubbs, T. J., Cargill, P. J., Lockwood, M., Grande, M., Kellett, B. J. and Perry, C. H. (2004) Extended cusp-like regions and their dependence on the Polar orbit, seasonal variations, and interplanetary conditions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109 (A9). A09210. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2003JA010163

Lockwood, M., Forsyth, R. B., Balogh, A. and McComas, D. J. (2004) Open solar flux estimates from near-Earth measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field: comparison of the first two perihelion passes of the Ulysses spacecraft. Annales Geophysicae, 22 (4). pp. 1395-1405. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-22-1395-2004

Rouillard, A. and Lockwood, M. (2004) Oscillations in the open solar magnetic flux with a period of 1.68 years: imprint on galactic cosmic rays and implications for heliospheric shielding. Annales Geophysicae, 22 (12). pp. 4381-4395. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-22-4381-2004

Lockwood, M. (2004) Solar Outputs, their variations and their effects of Earth. In: The Sun, Solar Analogs and the Climate. Proceedings of Saas-Fee Advanced Courses, 34 (34). Springer, 107-304. ISBN 3540238565 (Book authors: J.D. Haigh, M.Lockwood and M.S. Giampapa. Book editors:. I. Rüedi, M. Güdel, and W. Schmutz)

Stubbs, T. J., Lockwood, M., Cargill, P., Grande, M., Kellett, B. and Perry, C. (2004) A comparison between ion characteristics observed by the POLAR and DMSP spacecraft in the high-latitude magnetosphere. Annales Geophysicae, 22 (3). pp. 1033-1046. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-22-1033-2004

Moen, J., Lockwood, M., Oksavik, K., Carlson, H. C., Denig, W. F., van Eyken, A. P. and McCrea, I. W. (2004) The dynamics and relationships of precipitation, temperature and convection boundaries in the dayside auroral ionosphere. Annales Geophysicae, 22 (6). pp. 1973-1987. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-22-1973-2004

Lockwood, M. and Morley, S. K. (2004) A numerical model of the ionospheric signatures of time-varying magneticreconnection: I. ionospheric convection. Annales Geophysicae, 22 (1). pp. 73-91. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-22-73-2004

2003

Lockwood, M., Lanchester, B. S., Frey, H. U., Throp, K., Morley, S. K., Milan, S. E. and Lester, M. (2003) IMF control of cusp proton emission intensity and dayside convection: implications for component and anti-parallel reconnection. Annales Geophysicae, 21 (4). pp. 955-982. ISSN 1432-0576 doi: 10.5194/angeo-21-955-2003

Lockwood, M. (2003) Twenty-three cycles of changing open solar magnetic flux. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108 (A3). 1128. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2002JA009431

Morley, S. K. and Lockwood, M. (2003) The dependence of cusp ion signatures on the reconnection rate. Annales Geophysicae, 21 (4). pp. 947-953. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-21-947-2003

2002

Davies, J. A., Yeoman, T. K., Rae, I. J., Milan, S. E., Lester, M., Lockwood, M. and McWilliams, A. (2002) Ground-based observations of the auroral zone and polar cap ionospheric responses to dayside transient reconnection. Annales Geophysicae, 20 (6). pp. 781-794. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-20-781-2002

Lockwood, M. (2002) Long-term variations in the open solar flux and possible links to Earth’s climate. In: “From Solar Min to Max: Half a solar cycle with SoHO”, 11th SoHO Symposium, March 2002, Davos, Switzerland, pp. 507-522. (ESA-SP-508: “From Solar Min to Max: Half a solar cycle with SoHO”, Proc. SoHO 11 Symposium, Davos, Switzerland,)

Lockwood, M. (2002) Relationship between the near-Earth interplanetary field and the coronal source flux: dependence on timescale. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107 (A12). 1425. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2001JA009062

Lockwood, M. (2002) An evaluation of the correlation between open solar flux and total solar irradiance. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 382 (2). pp. 678-687. ISSN 0004-6361 doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011666

Mackay, D. H., Priest, E. R. and Lockwood, M. (2002) The evolution of the Sun's open magnetic flux: I. a single bipole. Solar Physics, 207 (2). pp. 291-308. ISSN 0038-0938 doi: 10.1023/A:1016249917230

Mackay, D.H. and Lockwood, M. (2002) The evolution of the sun’s open magnetic flux: II. full solar cycle simulations. Solar Physics, 209 (2). pp. 287-309. ISSN 0038-0938 doi: 10.1023/A:1021230604497

2001

Lockwood, M., Opgenoorth, H., van Eyken, A. P., Fazakerley, A., Bosqued, J.-M., Denig, W., Wild, J. A., Cully, C., Greenwald, R., Lu, G., Amm, O., Frey, H., Strømme, A., Prikryl, P., Hapgood, M. A., Wild, M. N., Stamper, R., Taylor, M., McCrea, I., Kauristie, K., Pulkkinen, T., Pitout, F., Balogh, A., Dunlop, M., Rème, H., Behlke, R., Hansen, T., Provan, G., Eglitis, P., Morley, S. K., Alcaydé, D., Blelly, P.-L., Moen, J., Donovan, E., Engebretson, M., Lester, M., Watermann, J. and Marcucci, M. F. (2001) Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe. Annales Geophysicae, 19 (10/12). pp. 1589-1612. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-19-1589-2001

Opgenoorth, H. J., Lockwood, M., Alcaydé, D., Donovan, E., Engebretson, M. J., van Eyken, A. P., Kauristie, K., Lester, M., Moen, J., Waterman, J., Alleyne, H., André, M., Dunlop, M. W., Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N., Masson, A., Fazerkerley, A., Rème, H., André, R., Amm, O., Balogh, A., Behlke, R., Blelly, P. L., Boholm, H., Borälv, E., Bosqued, J. M., Buchert, S., Candidi, M., Cerisier, J. C., Cully, C., Denig, W. F., Eglitis, P., Greenwald, R. A., Jackal, B., Kelly, J. D., Krauklis, I., Lu, G., Mann, I. R., Marcucci, M. F., McCrea, I. W., Maksimovic, M., Massetti, S., Décréau, P. M. E., Milling, D. K., Orsini, S., Pitout, F., Provan, G., Ruohoniemi, J. M., Samson, J. C., Schott, J. J., Sedgemore-Schulthess, F., Stamper, R., Stauning, P., Strømme, A., Taylor, M., Vaivads, A., Villain, J. P., Voronkov, I., Wild, J. A. and Wild, M. (2001) Coordinated ground-based, low altitude satellite and Cluster observations on global and local scales during a transient post-noon sector excursion of the magnetospheric cusp. Annales Geophysicae, 19 (10/12). pp. 1367-1398. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-19-1367-2001

Lockwood, M., Milan, S. E., Onsager, T., Perry, C. H., Scudder, J. A., Russell, C. T. and Brittnacher, M. (2001) Cusp ion steps, field-aligned currents and poleward moving auroral forms. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106 (A12). pp. 29555-29569. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2000JA900175

Stubbs, T. J., Lockwood, M., Cargill, P., Fennell, J., Grande, M., Kellett, B., Perry, C. and Rees, A. (2001) Dawn-dusk asymmetry in particles of solar wind origin within the magnetosphere. Annales Geophysicae, 19 (1). pp. 1-9. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-19-1-2001

Kauristie, K., Pulkkinen, T. I., Amm, O., Viljanen, A., Syrjäsuo, M., Janhunen, P., Massetti, S., Orsini, S., Candidi, M., Watermann, J., Donovan, E., Prikryl, P., Mann, I. R., Eglitis, P., Smith, C., Denig, W. F., Opgenoorth, H. J., Lockwood, M., Dunlop, M., Vaivads, A. and André, M. (2001) Ground-based and satellite observations of high-latitude auroral activity in the dusk sector of the auroral oval. Annales Geophysicae, 19 (10/12). pp. 1683-1696. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-19-1683-2001

Fox, N. J., Cowley, S. W. H., Davies, J. A., Greenwald, R. A., Lester, M., Lockwood, M. and Lühr, H. (2001) Ionospheric ion and electron heating at the poleward boundary of a poleward expanding substorm-disturbed region. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106 (A7). pp. 12845-12862. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/1999JA000387

Davis, C. J., Clarke, E. M., Bamford, R. A., Lockwood, M. and Bell, S. A. (2001) Long term changes in EUV and X-ray emissions from the solar corona and chromosphere as measured by the response of the Earth’s ionosphere during total solar eclipses from 1932 to 1999. Annales Geophysicae, 19 (3). pp. 263-273. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.5194/angeo-19-263-2001

Foste, S. and Lockwood, M. (2001) Long-term changes in the solar photosphere associated with changes in the coronal source flux. Geophysical Research Letters, 28 (8). pp. 1443-1446. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/2000GL011995

Lockwood, M. (2001) Long-term variations in cosmic ray fluxes and total solar irradiance and global climate change. In: Workshop on Ion-Aerosol-Cloud Interactions, 18-20th April 2001, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. (Proc. Workshop on Ion-Aerosol-Cloud Interactions, ed. J. Kirkby, CERN Yellow Report, CERN-2001-007 (ISSN 0007-8328, ISBN 92-9083-191-0), )

Lockwood, M. (2001) Long-term variations in the magnetic fields of the Sun and the heliosphere: their origin, effects, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106 (A8). pp. 16021-16038. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2000JA000115

Lockwood, M. (2001) Magnetosphere of Earth. In: The Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Nature publishing group & IOP Publishing. ISBN 0333750888 doi: 10.1888/0333750888/2338 (editor: P. Murdin)

Onsager, T. G., Scudder, J. D., Lockwood, M. and Russell, C. T. (2001) Reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause during northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106 (A11). pp. 25467-25488. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2000JA000444

Pulkkinen, T.I., Nevanlinna, H., Pulkkinen, P.J. and Lockwood, M. (2001) The Sun-Earth connection in time scales from years to decades and centuries. Space Science Reviews, 95 (1/2). pp. 625-637. ISSN 0038-6308 doi: 10.1023/A:1005299314802

Lockwood, M. (2001) The day the solar wind nearly died. Nature, 409 (6821). pp. 677-679. ISSN 0028-0836 doi: 10.1038/35055654

2000

McCrea, I. W., Lockwood, M., Moen, J., Pitout, F., Eglitis, P., Aylward, A. D., Cerisier, J.-C., Thorolfssen, A. and Milan, S. E. (2000) ESR and EISCAT observations of the response of the cusp and cleft to IMF orientation changes. Annales Geophysicae, 18 (9). pp. 1009-1026. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.1007/s00585-000-1009-7

Davis, C. J., Lockwood, M., Bell, S. A., Smith, J. A. and Clarke, E. M. (2000) Ionospheric measurements of relative coronal brightness during the total solar eclipses of 11 August, 1999 and 9 July, 1945. Annales Geophysicae, 18 (2). pp. 182-190. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.1007/s00585-000-0182-z

Lockwood, M. and Foster, S.S. (2000) Long-term variations in the magnetic field of the Sun and possible implications for terrestrial climate. In: Proc. 1st. Solar and Space Weather Euroconference, 25-29 September 2000, St Cruz de Tenerife, Tenerofe, Spain, pp. 85-94. (“The solar cycle and Terrestrial Climate”, Proc. 1st. Solar and Space Weather Euroconference, ESP SP-463)

Stubbs , T. J. , Cargill, P., Grande, M., Kellet , B., Lockwood, M. and Perry, C. H. (2000) Observations of the northern polar cusp with the Polar spacecraft. In: Cluster-II Workshop on Multiscale-Multipoint Measurements, 22 - 24 September 1999, London , pp. 319-322. (in Proc. Cluster-II Workshop on Multiscale-Multipoint Measurements, ESA Special Publication ESA SP-449, European Space Agency Publications, ESTEC, Noordwijk, 2000)

Lockwood, M., McCrea, I. W., Milan, S. E., Moen, J., Cerisier, J. C. and Thorolfsson, A. (2000) Plasma structure within poleward-moving cusp/cleft auroral transients: EISCAT Svalbard radar observations and an explanation in terms of large local time extent of events. Annales Geophysicae, 18 (9). pp. 1027-1042. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.1007/s00585-000-1027-5

Thorolfsson, A., Cerisier, J.-C., Lockwood, M., Sandholt, P. E., Senior, C. and Lester, M. (2000) Simultaneous optical and radar signatures of poleward-moving auroral forms. Annales Geophysicae, 18 (9). pp. 1054-1066. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.1007/s00585-000-1054-2

Karlsson, S. B. P., Opgenoorth, H. J., Eglitis, P., Kauristie, K., Syrjäsuo, M., Pulkkinen, T., Lockwood, M., Nakamura, R., Reeves, G. and Romanov, S. (2000) Solar wind control of magnetospheric energy content: substorm quenching and multiple onsets. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105 (A3). pp. 5335-5356. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/1999JA900297

Opgenoorth , H.J. , Eglitis, P. and Lockwood, M. (2000) Upgraded ground-based facilities for co-ordinated measurements with Cluster: opportunities for magnetospheric research revisited. In: Cluster-II Workshop on Multiscale-Multipoint Measurements, 22 - 24 September 1999, London , pp. 79-85. (Proc. Cluster-II Workshop on Multiscale-Multipoint Measurements, London, ESA)

1999

Sedgemore-Schulthess, K. J. F., Lockwood, M., Trondsen, T. S., Lanchester, B. S., Rees, M. H., Lorentzen, D. A. and Moen, J. (1999) Coherent EISCAT Svalbard Radar spectra from the dayside cusp/cleft and their implications for transient field-aligned currents. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104 (A11). pp. 24613-24624. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/1999JA900276

Lockwood, M. and Cowley, S. W. H. (1999) Comment on “A statistical study of the ionospheric convection response to changing interplanetary magnetic field conditions using the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics technique” by A.J. Ridley et al. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104 (A3). pp. 4387-4391. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/1998JA900145

Chandler, M. O., Fuselier, S. A., Lockwood, M. and Moore, T. E. (1999) Evidence of component merging equatorward of the cusp. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104 (A10). pp. 22623-22633. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/1999JA900175

Lockwood, M. and Stamper, R. (1999) Long-term drift of the coronal source magnetic flux and the total solar irradiance. Geophysical Research Letters, 26 (16). pp. 2461-2464. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/1999GL900485

Lockwood, M., Stamper, R., Wild, M. N., Balogh, A. and Jones, G. (1999) Our changing Sun. Astronomy & Geophysics, 40 (4). 4.10-4.16. ISSN 1366-8781 doi: 10.1093/astrog/40.4.4.10

Sibeck, D.G., Paschmann, G., Treumann, R.A., Fuselier, S.A., Lennartsson, W., Lockwood, M., Lundin, R., Ogilvie, K.W., Onsager, T.G., Phan, T.-D., Roth, M., Scholer, M., Sckopke, N., Stasiewicz, K. and Yamauchi, M. (1999) Plasma transfer processes at the magnetopause. Space Science Reviews, 88 (1/2). pp. 207-283. ISSN 0038-6308 doi: 10.1023/A:1005255801425

Lockwood, M., Wild, M. N., Stamper, R., Davis, C. J. and Grande, M. (1999) Predicting solar disturbance effects on navigation systems. Journal of Navigation, 52 (2). pp. 203-216. ISSN 0373-4633 doi: 10.1017/S0373463399008279

Lockwood, M. and Moen, J. (1999) Reconfiguration and closure of lobe flux by reconnection during northward IMF: possible evidence for signatures in cusp/cleft auroral emissions. Annales Geophysicae, 17 (8). pp. 996-1011. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.1007/s00585-999-0996-2

Stamper, R., Lockwood, M., Wild, M. N. and Clark, T. D. G. (1999) Solar causes of the long-term increase in geomagnetic activity. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104 (A12). pp. 28325-28342. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/1999JA900311

Lockwood, M. and Davis, C. J. (1999) The correct application of Poynting's theorem to the time-dependent magnetosphere: reply to Heikkila. Annales Geophysicae, 17 (2). pp. 178-181. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.1007/s00585-999-0178-2

Lockwood, M., Stamper, R. and Wild, M. N. (1999) A doubling of the sun's coronal magnetic field during the last 100 years. Nature, 399 (6735). pp. 437-439. ISSN 0028-0836 doi: 10.1038/20867

Lockwood, M. and Hapgood, M. A. (1999) The low-latitude boundary layer: Application of ISTP advances to past data. In: Toward Solar Max 2000: The Present Achievements and Future Opportunities of ISTP and GEM, February 10-13, 1998, Yosemite Park, California, USA, pp. 103-111. doi: 10.1029/GM109p0103 (in “The Physics of Sun-Earth Plasma and Field Processes” ed. J. Burch, AGU Monograph 109, 103-111, doi: 10.1029/GM109p0103, 1999)

Fox, N. J., Cowley, S. W. H., Davda, V. N., Enno, G., Friis-Christensen, E., Greenwald, R. A., Hairston, M. R., Lester, M., Lockwood, M., Lühr, H., Milling, D. K., Murphree, J. S., Pinnock, M. and Reeves, G. D. (1999) A multipoint study of a substorm occurring on 7 December, 1992, and its theoretical implications. Annales Geophysicae, 17 (11). pp. 1369-1384. ISSN 0992-7689 doi: 10.1007/s00585-999-1369-6

Fuselier, S. A., Lockwood, M., Onsager, T. G. and Peterson, W. K. (1999) The source population for the cusp and cleft/LLBL for southward IMF. Geophysical Research Letters, 26 (12). pp. 1665-1668. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/1999GL900354

1998

Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F., Aylward, A. D. and Lockwood, M. (1998) Effects of a mid-latitude solar eclipse on the thermosphere and ionosphere: a modelling study. Geophysical Research Letters, 25 (20). pp. 3787-3790. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/1998GL900045

Lockwood, M. (1998) Identifying the Open-Closed Field Line Boundary. In: NATO Advanced Study Institute on Polar Cap Boundary Phenomena, 4-13 June 1997, Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, pp. 73-90. doi: 10.1007/978-94-011-5214-3_7 (in "Polar Cap Boundary Phenomena ", ed. J. Moen, A. Egeland and M. Lockwood,)

Lockwood, M., Davis, C. J., Onsager, T. G. and Scudder, J. D. (1998) Modelling signatures of pulsed magnetopause reconnection in cusp ion dispersion signatures seen at middle altitudes. Geophysical Research Letters, 25 (5). pp. 591-594. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/98GL00185

Lockwood, M. and Hapgood, M. A. (1998) On the cause of a magnetospheric flux transfer event. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103 (A11). pp. 26453-26478. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/98JA02244

Lockwood, M., Fuselier, S., Walker, A. D. M. and Søraas, F. (1998) A Summary of the NATO ASI on Polar Cap Boundary Phenomena. In: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Polar Cap Boundary Phenomena, 4-13 June 1997, Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, pp. 415-432. doi: 10.1007/978-94-011-5214-3_32 (in "Polar Cap Boundary Phenomena ", ed. J. Moen, A. Egeland and M. Lockwood, NATO ASI Series C, Vol. 509, pp 415-432, Kluwer, Dordrecht,)

Sandholt, P. E., Moen, J., Stauning, P., Holtet, J. A., Cowley, S. W. H., Lockwood, M., Løvhaug, U. P., Hansen, T. and Egeland, A. (1998) Temporal and spatial variability of auroral forms in the 10–14 MLT sector: Relationship to plasma convection and solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Earth, Planets and Spac, 50 (8). pp. 663-682. ISSN 1343-8832 doi: 10.1186/BF03352161

Szuszczewicz, E. P., Blanchard, P., Wilkinson, P., Crowley, G., Fuller-Rowell, T., Richards, P., Abdu, M., Bullett, T., Hanbaba, R., Lebreton, J. P., Lester, M., Lockwood, M., Millward, G., Wild, M., Pulinets, S., Reddy, B. M., Stanislawska, I., Vannaroni, G. and Zolesi, B. (1998) The first real-time worldwide ionospheric predictions network: an advance in support of spaceborne experimentation, on-line model validation, and space weather. Geophysical Research Letters, 25 (4). pp. 449-452. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/97GL03279

1997

Wild, M.N. and Lockwood, M. (1997) The Cluster-Ground Based Data Centre at RAL. In: Satellite/ground-based coordination source book. ESA Special Publications (SP), SP-1198 (SP-1198). ESA Publications, ESTEC, Noordvijk, The Netherlands, pp. 361-366. (Satellite/ground-based coordination source book, by M. Lockwood, M.N. Wild and H.J. Opgenoorth (eds. R. Schmidt, P.C. Escoubet and B. Battrick), ESA SP-1198, June 1997)

Lockwood, M. and Opgenoorth, H.J. (1997) Foreword to Sourcebook. In: Lockwood, M., Wild, M.N., Opgenoorth, H.J., Schmidt, R., Escoubet, P.C. and Battrick, B. (eds.) Satellite/ground-based coordination source book. ESA Special Publications (SP), SP-1198 (SP-1198). ESA Publications, ESTEC, Noordvijk, The Netherlands, pp. 7-11. (Satellite/ground-based coordination source book, by M. Lockwood, M.N. Wild and H.J. Opgenoorth (eds. R. Schmidt, P.C. Escoubet and B. Battrick), ESA SP-1198, June 1997)

McCrea, I.W. and Lockwood, M. (1997) Incoherent Scatter Radars. In: Lockwood, M., Wild, M.N., Opgenoorth, H.J., Schmidt, R., Escoubet, C.P. and Battrick, B. (eds.) Satellite/ground-based coordination source book. ESA Special Publications (SP), SP-1198 (SP-1198). ESA Publications, ESTEC, Noordvijk, The Netherlands, pp. 239-266. (http://www.esa.int/esapub/bulletin/bullet91/b91publ.htm)

Lockwood, M. and Opgenoorth, H.J. (1997) Principles of combined ground-based and satellite studies of solar-terrestrial phenomena. In: Lockwood, M., Wild, M.N., Opgennorth, H.J., Schmidt, R., Escoubet, C.P. and Battrick, B. (eds.) Satellite/ground-based coordination source book. ESA Special Publications (SP), SP-1198 (SP-1198). ESA Publications, ESTEC, Noordvijk, The Netherlands, pp. 3-14. (Satellite/ground-based coordination source book, by M. Lockwood, M.N. Wild and H.J. Opgenoorth (eds. R. Schmidt, P.C. Escoubet and B. Battrick), ESA SP-1198, June 1997)

Opgenoorth , H.J., Persson , M.A.L., Lockwood, M., Stamper, R. , Wild, M.N., Pellinen, R., Pulkkinen , T. , Kauristie, K., Hughes, T. and Kamide, Y. (1997) A new family of geomagnetic disturbance indices. In: Lockwood, M., Wild, M.N., Opgenoorth, H.J., Schmidt, R., Escoubet, P.C. and Battrick, B. (eds.) Satellite/ground-based coordination source book. ESA Special Publications (SP), SP-1198 (SP-1198). ESA Publications, ESTEC, Noordvijk, The Netherlands, pp. 49-62. (Satellite/ground-based coordination source book, by M. Lockwood, M.N. Wild and H.J. Opgenoorth (eds. R. Schmidt, P.C. Escoubet and B. Battrick), ESA SP-1198, June 1997)

Stamper, R., Wild , M.N. , Lockwood, M. and Wallman, S. (1997) An on-line directory facility of STP. In: Lockwood, M., Wild, M.N., Opgenoorth, H.J., Schmidt, R., Escoubet, C.P. and Battrick, B. (eds.) Satellite/ground-based coordination source book. ESA Special Publications (SP), SP-1198 (SP-1198). ESA Publications, ESTEC, Noordvijk, The Netherlands, pp. 367-387. (Satellite/ground-based coordination source book, by M. Lockwood, M.N. Wild and H.J. Opgenoorth (eds. R. Schmidt, P.C. Escoubet and B. Battrick), ESA SP-1198, June 1997)

Lockwood, M. (1997) Cluster's last stand? Astronomy & Geophysics, 38 (1). pp. 21-25. ISSN 1366-8781 doi: 10.1093/astrog/38.1.21

Lockwood, M. (1997) Energy and pitch-angle dispersions of LLBL/cusp ions seen at middle altitudes: predictions by the open magnetosphere model. Annales Geophysicae, 15 (12). pp. 1501-1514. ISSN 1432-0576 doi: 10.1007/s00585-997-1501-4

Onsager, T.G. and Lockwood, M. (1997) High-latitude particle precipitation and its relationship to magnetospheric source regions. Space Science Reviews, 80 (1/2). pp. 77-107. ISSN 00386308 doi: 10.1023/A:1004925720793

Lockwood, M. and Hapgood, M. A. (1997) How the magnetopause transition parameter works. Geophysical Research Letters, 24 (4). pp. 373-376. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/97GL00120

Cowley, S.W.H. and Lockwood, M. (1997) Incoherent scatter radar observations related to magnetospheric dynamics. Advances in Space Research, 20 (4-5). pp. 873-882. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(97)00495-X

Scott, C. J., Wild, M. N., Lockwood, M. and Tulunay, Y. K. (1997) Ionospheric and geomagnetic responses to changes in IMF B_Z: a superposed epoch study. Annales Geophysicae, 15 (2). pp. 217-230. ISSN 1432-0576 doi: 10.1007/s00585-997-0217-9

Opgenoorth, H. J. and Lockwood, M. (1997) Opportunities for magnetospheric research with coordinated cluster and ground-based observations. Space Science Reviews, 79 (1/2). pp. 599-637. ISSN 0038-6308 doi: 10.1023/A:1004910721860

Lockwood, M. (1997) Relationship of dayside auroral precipitations to the open-closed separatrix and the pattern of convective flow. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102 (A8). p. 17475. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/97JA01100

Lockwood, M. (1997) Solar Wind - Magnetosphere Coupling. In: Incoherent Scattare Radar Workshop, September 1995, Cargese, Corsica, pp. 122-186. (in )

Lockwood, M. (1997) Testing substorm theories: The need for multipoint observations. Advances in Space Research, 20 (4-5). pp. 883-894. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(97)00496-1

1996

Moen, J., Evans, D., Carlson, H. C. and Lockwood, M. (1996) Dayside moving auroral transients related to LLBL dynamics. Geophysical Research Letters, 23 (22). pp. 3247-3250. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/96GL02766

Gazey, N. G. J., Lockwood, M., Grande, M., Perry, C. H., Smith, P. N., Coles, S., Aylward, A. D., Bunting, R. J., Opgenoorth, H. and Wilken, B. (1996) EISCAT/CRRES observations: nightside ionospheric ion outflow and oxygen-rich substorm injections. Annales Geophysicae, 14 (10). pp. 1032-1043. ISSN 1432-0576 doi: 10.1007/s00585-996-1032-4

Smith, M. F. and Lockwood, M. (1996) Earth's magnetospheric cusps. Reviews of Geophysics, 34 (2). p. 233. ISSN 8755-1209 doi: 10.1029/96RG00893

Lockwood, M., Cowley, S. W. H. and Onsager, T. G. (1996) Ion acceleration at both the interior and exterior Alfvén waves associated with the magnetopause reconnection site: Signatures in cusp precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101 (A10). p. 21501. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/96JA01948

Lockwood, M. and Moen, J. (1996) Ion populations on open field lines within the dayside low-latitude boundary layer: theory and observations during a transient event. Geophysical Research Letters, 23 (21). pp. 2895-2898. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/96GL02761

Lühr, H., Lockwood, M., Sandholt, P. E., Hansen, T. L. and Moretto, T. (1996) Multi-instrument ground-based observations of a travelling convection vortices event. Annales Geophysicae, 14 (2). pp. 162-181. ISSN 1432-0576 doi: 10.1007/s00585-996-0162-z

Lockwood, M. and Davis, C. J. (1996) On the longitudinal extent of magnetopause reconnection pulses. Annales Geophysicae, 14 (9). pp. 865-878. ISSN 1432-0576 doi: 10.1007/s00585-996-0865-1

Davis, C. J. and Lockwood, M. (1996) Predicted signatures of pulsed reconnection in ESR data. Annales Geophysicae, 14 (12). pp. 1246-1256. ISSN 1432-0576 doi: 10.1007/s00585-996-1246-5

Cowley, S.W.H. and Lockwood, M. (1996) Time-dependent flows in the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Advances in Space Research, 18 (8). pp. 141-150. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(95)00972-8

Moen, J., Lockwood, M., Sandholt, P.E., Løvhaug, U.P., Denig, W.F., van Eyken, A.P. and Egeland, A. (1996) Variability of dayside high latitude convection associated with a sequence of auroral transients. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 58 (1-4). pp. 85-96. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(95)00021-6

Lockwood, M. and Davis, C. J. (1996) An analysis of the accuracy of magnetopause reconnection rate variations deduced from cusp ion dispersion characteristics. Annales Geophysicae, 14 (2). pp. 149-161. ISSN 1432-0576 doi: 10.1007/s00585-996-0149-9

Lockwood, M. (1996) The case for transient magnetopause reconnection. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 77 (26). p. 246. ISSN 0096-3941 doi: 10.1029/96EO00175

1995

Lockwood, M., Cowley, S. W. H., Sandholt, P. E. and Løvhaug, U. P. (1995) Causes of plasma flow bursts and dayside auroral transients: An evaluation of two models Invoking reconnection pulses and changes in the Y component of the magnetosheath field. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100 (A5). pp. 7613-7626. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/94JA02264

Gazey, N. G. J., Lockwood, M., Smith, P. N., Coles, S., Bunting, R. J., Lester, M., Aylward, A. D., Yeoman, T. K. and Lühr, H. (1995) Development of substorm cross-tail current disruption as seen from the ground. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100 (A6). p. 9633. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/94JA02322

Moen, J., Sandholt, P. E., Lockwood, M., Denig, W. F., Løvhaug, U. P., Lybekk, B., Egeland, A., Opsvik, D. and Friis-Christensen, E. (1995) Events of enhanced convection and related dayside auroral activity. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100 (A12). p. 23917. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/95JA02585

Weiss, L. A., Reiff, P. H., Weber, E. J., Carlson, H. C., Lockwood, M. and Peterson, W. K. (1995) Flow-aligned jets in the magnetospheric cusp: Results from the Geospace Environment Modeling Pilot Program. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100 (A5). p. 7649. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/94JA03360

Lockwood, M. (1995) Ground-Based and satellite observations of the cusp: Evidence for pulsed magnetopause reconnection. In: Song, P. , Sonnerup, B.U.Ö. and Thomsen, M.F. (eds.) Physics of the Magnetopause. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., USA, pp. 417-426. doi: 10.1029/GM090p0417

Lockwood, M. (1995) Large-scale fields and flows in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Surveys in Geophysics, 16 (3). pp. 389-441. ISSN 0169-3298 doi: 10.1007/BF01044574

Lockwood, M. (1995) Location and characteristics of the reconnection X line deduced from low-altitude satellite and ground-based observations: 1. Theory. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100 (A11). p. 21791. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/95JA01340

Lockwood, M., Davis, C. J., Smith, M. F., Onsager, T. G. and Denig, W. F. (1995) Location and characteristics of the reconnection X line deduced from low-altitude satellite and ground-based observations: 2. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program and European Incoherent Scatter data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100 (A11). p. 21803. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/95JA01339

Lockwood, M. and Davis, C. J. (1995) Occurrence probability, width and number of steps of cusp precipitation for fully pulsed reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100 (A5). pp. 7627-7640. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/94JA02197

Lockwood, M. and Opgenoorth, H.J. (1995) Opportunities for magnetospheric research using EISCAT/ESR and CLUSTER. Journall Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity, 47 (8). pp. 699-721. ISSN 0022-1392

Lockwood, M. (1995) Overlapping cusp ion injections: An explanation invoking magnetopause reconnection. Geophysical Research Letters, 22 (9). pp. 1141-1144. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/95GL00811

Hapgood, M. and Lockwood, M. (1995) Rapid changes in LLBL thickness. Geophysical Research Letters, 22 (1). pp. 77-80. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/94GL02835

Lester, M., Lockwood, M., Yeoman, T. K., Cowley, S. W. H., Lühr, H., Bunting, R. and Farrugia, C. J. (1995) The response of ionospheric convection in the polar cap to substorm activity. Annales Geophysicae, 13 (2). pp. 147-158. ISSN 1432-0576 doi: 10.1007/s00585-995-0147-3

1994

Lockwood, M., Cowley, S. W. H. and Smith, M. F. (1994) Comment on “B_y fluctuations in the magnetosheath and azimuthal flow velocity transients in the dayside ionosphere” by Newell and Sibeck. Geophysical Research Letters, 21 (17). pp. 1819-1820. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/94GL01360

Lockwood, M. and Cowley, S. W. H. (1994) Comment on “Ionospheric signatures of dayside magnetopause transients: A case study using satellite and ground measurements” by Denig et al. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99 (A3). pp. 4253-4255. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/93JA02737

Fox, N. J., Lockwood, M., Cowley, S. W. H., Freeman, M. P., Friis-Christensen, E., Milling, D. K., Pinnock, M. and Reeves, G. D. (1994) EISCAT observations of unusual flows in the morning sector associated with weak substorm activity. Annales Geophysicae, 12 (6). pp. 541-553. ISSN 1432-0576 doi: 10.1007/s00585-994-0541-2

Lockwood, M. (1994) Ionospheric Signatures of Pulsed Magnetopause Reconnection. In: NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Physical Signatures of Magnetospheric Boundary Layer Processes, 9-14 May 1993, Hönefoss, Norway, pp. 229-243. doi: 10.1007/978-94-011-1052-5_16 (in "Physical Signatures of Magnetospheric Boundary Layer Processes", Proc. NATO Advanced Study Institute, NATO ASI Series Volume 425, 1994 )

Lockwood, M. and Smith, M. F. (1994) Low and middle altitude cusp particle signatures for general magnetopause reconnection rate variations: 1. Theory. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99 (A5). 8531-8553,. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/93JA03399

Moen, J., Sandholt, P. E., Lockwood, M., Egeland, A. and Fukui, K. (1994) Multiple, discrete arcs on sunward convecting field lines in the 14-15 MLT region. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99 (A4). p. 6113. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/93JA03344

Lockwood, M. and Carlson, H. C. (1994) Reply [to “Comments on ‘Production of polar cap electron density patches by transient magnetopause reconnections’”]. Geophysical Research Letters, 21 (21). pp. 2337-2338. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/93GL03390

Lockwood, M., Onsager, T. G., Davis, C. J., Smith, M. F. and Denig, W. F. (1994) The characteristics of the magnetopause reconnection X-line deduced from low-altitude satellite observations of cusp ions. Geophysical Research Letters, 21 (24). pp. 2757-2760. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/94GL02696

Fox, N.J., Lockwood, M., Cowley, S.W.H., Davda, V.N., Enno, G., Friis-Christensen, E., Greenwald, R.A., Kivelson, M., Lester, M., Lühr, H., Milling, D.K., Murphree, J.S., Pinnock, M. and Reeves, G.D. (1994) A comparison of Freja auroral images with substorm cycle observations. In: Second International Conference on Substorms, March 7-11, 1994, Fairbanks, Alaska, U.S.A., pp. 421-428. (Substorms 2: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Substorms. editors: J. R. Kan, J. D. Craven, S.-I. Akasofu)

Lockwood, M., Cowley, S. W. H., Smith, M. F., Rijnbeek, R. P. and Elphic, R. C. (1994) The contribution of flux transfer events to convection. Geophysical Research Letters, 22 (10). pp. 1185-1188. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/95GL01008

1993

Lockwood, M. and Smith, M. F. (1993) Comment on “Mapping the dayside ionosphere to the magnetosphere according to particle precipitation characteristics” by Newell and Meng. Geophysical Research Letters, 20 (16). pp. 1739-1740. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/93GL01967

Lockwood, M., McCrea, I.W., Millward, G.H., Moffett, R.J. and Rishbeth, H. (1993) EISCAT observations of ion composition and temperature anisotropy in the high-latitude F-region. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 55 (6). pp. 895-906. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(93)90029-X

Chakrabarti, S., Smith, M. F., Herrero, F. A., Hesse, M., Baker, D. N., Bochsler, P. A., Wurz, P., Balsiger, H., Chakrabarti, S., Erickson, G., Cotton, D. M., Stephen, T. S., Jamar, C. A. J., Gerard, J.-C., Fuselier, S. A., Ghielmetti, A. G., Mende, S. B., Peterson, W. K., Shelley, E. G., Vondrak, R. R., Gallagher, D. L., Moore, T. E., Pollock, C., Arnoldy, R., Lockwood, M. and Gladstone, R. (1993) High-latitude ion transport and energetic explorer (HI-LITE): a mission to investigate ion outflow from the high-latitude ionosphere. In: Instrumentation for Magnetospheric Imagery II, 11th July, 1993, San Diego, Calfornia, USA, pp. 40-56. doi: 10.1117/12.147643

Lockwood, M., Carlson, H. C. and Sandholt, P. E. (1993) Implications of the altitude of transient 630-nm dayside auroral emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98 (A9). pp. 15571-15587. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/93JA00811

Knipp, D. J., Emery, B. A., Richmond, A. D., Crooker, N. U., Hairston, M. R., Cumnock, J. A., Denig, W. F., Rich, F. J., de la Beaujardiere, O., Ruohoniemi, J. M., Rodger, A. S., Crowley, G., Ahn, B. -H., Evans, D. S., Fuller -Rowell, T. J., Friis -Christensen, E., Lockwood, M., Kroehl, H. W., Maclennan, C. G., McEwin, A., Pellinen, R. J., Morris, R. J., Burns, G. B., Papitashvili, V., Zaitzev, A., Troshichev, O., Sato, N., Sutcliffe, P. and Tomlinson, L. (1993) Ionospheric convection response to slow, strong variations in a northward interplanetary magnetic field: A case study for January 14, 1988. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98 (A11). pp. 19273-19292. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/93JA01010

Lockwood, M., Denig, W. F., Farmer, A. D., Davda, V. N., Cowley, S. W. H. and Lühr, H. (1993) Ionospheric signatures of pulsed reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause. Nature, 361 (6411). pp. 424-428. ISSN 0028-0836 doi: 10.1038/361424a0

Lockwood, M. (1993) Modelling the high-latitude ionosphere for time-varying plasma convection. Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, IEE Proceedings H, 140 (2). pp. 91-100. ISSN 0950-107X

Lockwood, M. and Wild, M. N. (1993) On the quasi-periodic nature of magnetopause flux transfer events. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98 (A4). pp. 5935-5940. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/92JA02375

Hapgood, M. and Lockwood, M. (1993) On the voltage and distance across the low latitude boundary layer. Geophysical Research Letters, 20 (2). pp. 145-148. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/93GL00063

Lockwood, M., Moen, J., Cowley, S. W. H., Farmer, A. D., Løvhaug, U. P., Lühr, H. and Davda, V. N. (1993) Variability of dayside convection and motions of the cusp/cleft aurora. Geophysical Research Letters, 20 (11). pp. 1011-1014. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/93GL00846

1992

Lockwood, M. and Coates, A. (1992) Blowing in the solar wind. New Scientist, 133 (1811). pp. 25-30.

Saunders, M. A., Freeman, M. P., Southwood, D. J., Cowley, S. W. H., Lockwood, M., Samson, J. C., Farrugia, C. J. and Hughes, T. J. (1992) Dayside ionospheric convection changes in response to long-period interplanetary Magnetic field oscillations: Determination of the ionospheric phase velocity. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97 (A12). pp. 19373-19380. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/92JA01383

Sandholt, P.E., Lockwood, M., Denig, W.F., Elphic, R.C. and Leontjev, S. (1992) Dynamic auroral structure in the vicinity of the polar cusp - multipoint observations during southward and northward IMF. Annales Geophysicae, 10 (7). pp. 483-497.

Cowley, S.W.H., Morelli , J.P., Freeman, M., Lockwood, M. and Smith, M.F. (1992) Excitation and decay of flows in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system due to magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the geomagnetic tail. In: First International Conference on Substorms, ICS-1, 23-27 March 1992, Kiruna, Sweden, pp. 117-123. (in "Substorms 1, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Substorms, ICS-1", ed C. Mattock, ESA-SP-335, )

Cowley, S.W.H. and Lockwood, M. (1992) Excitation and decay of solar-wind driven flows in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Annales Geophysicae, 10. pp. 103-115.

Lockwood, M. and Cowley, S.W.H. (1992) Ionospheric convection and the substorm cycle. In: the First International Conference on Substorms, ICS-1, 23-27 March 1992, Kiruna, Sweden, pp. 99-109. (in "Substorms 1, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Substorms, ICS-1", ed C. Mattock, ESA-SP-335 European Space Agency Publications, Nordvijk, The Netherlands)

Smith, M.F., Lockwood, M. and Cowley, S.W.H. (1992) The statistical cusp: a flux transfer event model. Planetary and Space Science, 40 (9). pp. 1251-1268. ISSN 00320633 doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(92)90082-Y

Lockwood, M. and Smith, M. F. (1992) The variation of reconnection rate at the dayside magnetopause and cusp ion precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97 (A10). pp. 14841-14847. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/92JA01261

1991

Lockwood, M. and Cowley, S. W. H. (1991) Comment on “Ionospheric convection response to changing IMF direction” by Knipp et al. Geophysical Research Letters, 18 (11). pp. 2173-2174. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/91GL02547

Cowley, S. W. H., Morelli, J. P. and Lockwood, M. (1991) Dependence of convective flows and particle precipitation in the high-latitude dayside ionosphere on theXandYcomponents of the interplanetary magnetic field. Journal of Geophysical Research, 96 (A4). p. 5557. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/90JA02063

Lockwood, M. (1991) Flux transfer events at the dayside magnetopause: Transient reconnection or magnetosheath dynamic pressure pulses? Journal of Geophysical Research, 96 (A4). p. 5497. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/90JA02389

Lockwood, M. (1991) Incoherent scatter radar measurements of the cusp. In: International Workshop on Planning and Coordination of Measurements from Cluster, Ground Stations, Balloons, and Rockets in the Dayside Polar-cusp Region, 16-19 September 1991, Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, pp. 57-66. (in ”Cluster Dayside Polar Cusp: Planning and Coordination of Measurements from Cluster, Ground Stations, Balloons, and Rockets in the Dayside Polar-cusp Region”, Proceedings of an International Workshop, Longyearbyen, Norway, 16-19 September 1991 ESA Spe)

Lockwood, M. (1991) On flow reversal boundaries and transpolar voltage in average models of high-latitude convection. Planetary and Space Science, 39 (3). pp. 397-409. ISSN 00320633 doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(91)90002-R

Lockwood, M. (1991) Requirements for co-ordinated Cluster and ground-based observations of the cusp. In: International Workshop on Planning and Coordination of Measurements from Cluster, Ground Stations, Balloons, and Rockets in the Dayside Polar-cusp Region, 16-19 September 1991, Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, pp. 203-210. (in ”Cluster Dayside Polar Cusp: Planning and Coordination of Measurements from Cluster, Ground Stations, Balloons, and Rockets in the Dayside Polar-cusp Region”, Proceedings of an International Workshop, Longyearbyen, Norway, 16-19 September 1991 ESA Spe)

Hapgood, M.A., Lockwood, M., Bowe, G.A., Willis, D.M. and Tulunay, Y.K. (1991) Variability of the interplanetary medium at 1 A.U. over 24 years: 1963–1986. Planetary and Space Science, 39 (3). pp. 411-423. ISSN 00320633 doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(91)90003-S

Lockwood, M. (1991) The excitation of ionospheric convection. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 53 (3-4). pp. 177-199. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(91)90103-E

Lockwood, M. (1991) The interconnection of the magnetic fields of the Earth and the sun. Endeavour, 15 (3). pp. 126-132.

Cowley, S.W.H., Freeman, M.P., Lockwood, M. and Smith, M.F. (1991) The ionospheric signature of flux transfer events. In: International Workshop on Planning and Coordination of Measurements from Cluster, Ground Stations, Balloons, and Rockets in the Dayside Polar-cusp Region, 16-19 September 1991 , Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, pp. 105-112. (in ”Cluster Dayside Polar Cusp: Planning and Coordination of Measurements from Cluster, Ground Stations, Balloons, and Rockets in the Dayside Polar-cusp Region”, Proceedings of an International Workshop, Longyearbyen, Norway, 16-19 September 1991 ESA Spe)

1990

Lockwood, M., Sandholt, P.E., Farmer, A.D., Cowley, S.W.H., Lybekk, B. and Davda, V.N. (1990) Auroral and plasma flow transients at magnetic noon. Planetary and Space Science, 38 (8). pp. 973-993. ISSN 00320633 doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(90)90043-P

Sandholt, P. E., Lockwood, M., Lybekk, B. and Farmer, A. D. (1990) Auroral bright spot sequence near 1400 MLT: Coordinated optical and ion drift observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95 (A12). pp. 21095-21110. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA095iA12p21095

Jones, G.O.L., Williams, P.J.S., Winser, K.J. and Lockwood, M. (1990) Characteristics of the high-latitude trough. Advances in Space Research, 10 (6). pp. 191-196. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(90)90253-V

Smith, M. F., Winningham, J. D., Slavin, J. A. and Lockwood, M. (1990) DE-2 observations of filamentary currents at ionospheric altitudes. In: Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes. Amarican Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., USA, pp. 591-598. doi: 10.1029/GM058p0591 (edited by: C.T. Russell, E.R. Priest and L.C. Lee, Geophys. Monograph Ser. 58)

Elphic, R. C., Lockwood, M., Cowley, S. W. H. and Sandholt, P. E. (1990) Flux transfer events at the magnetopause and in the ionosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, 17 (12). pp. 2241-2244. ISSN 0094-8276 doi: 10.1029/GL017i012p02241

Winser, K.J., Lockwood, M., Jones, G.O.L., Rishbeth, H. and Ashford, M.G. (1990) Measuring ion temperatures and studying the ion energy balance in the high-latitude ionosphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 52 (6-8). pp. 501-517. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(90)90049-S

Sandholt, P. E., Lockwood, M., Oguti, T., Cowley, S. W. H., Freeman, K. S. C., Lybekk, B., Egeland, A. and Willis, D. M. (1990) Midday auroral breakup events and related energy and momentum transfer from the magnetosheath. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95 (A2). pp. 1039-1060. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA095iA02p01039

Sandholt, P. E. and Lockwood, M. (1990) Periodic auroral events at the high-latitude convection reversal in the 16 MLT region. Geophysical Research Letters, 17 (11). pp. 1877-1880. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL017i011p01877

Lockwood, M. and Smith, M. F. (1990) Reply to “Comment on ‘Low-altitude signatures of the cusp and flux transfer events’”. Geophysical Research Letters, 17 (3). pp. 305-306. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL017i003p00305

Lockwood, M. and Smith, M. F. (1990) Reply to “Comment on: ’Low-altitude signatures of the cusp and flux transfer events’ by Mike Lockwood and Mark F. Smith”. Geophysical Research Letters, 17 (5). pp. 657-658. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL017i005p00657

Bowe, G. A., Hapgood, M. A., Lockwood, M. and Willis, D. M. (1990) Short-term variability of solar wind number density, speed and dynamic pressure as a function of the interplanetary magnetic field components: A survey over two solar cycles. Geophysical Research Letters, 17 (11). pp. 1825-1828. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL017i011p01825

Robinson, R.M., Clauer, C.R., De La Beaujardiere, O., Kelly, J.D., Friis-christensen, E. and Lockwood, M. (1990) Sondrestrom and EISCAT radar observations of poleward-moving auroral forms. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 52 (6-8). pp. 411-420. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(90)90040-T

Lockwood, M., Cowley, S. W. H. and Sandholt, P. E. (1990) Transient reconnection: Search for ionospheric signatures. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 71 (20). pp. 709-720. ISSN 0096-3941 doi: 10.1029/EO071i020p00709-02

Lockwood, M., Cowley, S. W. H. and Freeman, M. P. (1990) The excitation of plasma convection in the high-latitude ionosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95 (A6). pp. 7961-7972. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA095iA06p07961

Lockwood, M., Cowley, S. W. H., Sandholt, P. E. and Lepping, R. P. (1990) The ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events and solar wind dynamic pressure changes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95 (A10). p. 17113. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA095iA10p17113

Smith, M. F. and Lockwood, M. (1990) The pulsating cusp. Geophysical Research Letters, 17 (8). pp. 1069-1072. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL017i008p01069

Freeman, M. P., Farrugia, C. J., Cowley, S. W. H., Southwood, D. J., Lockwood, M. and Etemadi, A. (1990) The response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to solar wind dynamic pressure variations. In: Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes. in "Physics of magnetic flux ropes", ed. C.T. Russell, E.R. Priest and L.C. Lee, Geophys. Monograph 58, 58. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., USA, pp. 611-618. doi: 10.1029/GM058p0611

Keating, J.G., Mulligan, F.J., Doyle, D.B., Winser, K.J. and Lockwood, M. (1990) A statistical study of large field-aligned flows of thermal ions at high-latitudes. Planetary and Space Science, 38 (9). pp. 1187-1201. ISSN 00320633 doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(90)90026-M

1989

Suvanto, K., Lockwood, M., Winser, K.J., Farmer, A.D. and Bromage, B.J.I. (1989) Analysis of incoherent scatter radar data from non-thermal F-region plasma. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 51 (6). pp. 483-495. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(89)90088-3

Suvanto, K., Lockwood, M., Winser, K.J., Farmer, A.D. and Bromage, B.J.I. (1989) Analysis of incoherent scatter spectra from non-Maxwellian plasma. Advances in Space Research, 9 (5). pp. 103-106. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(89)90346-3

Kofman, W., Schlegel, K., Lovhaug, U. P., Lockwood, M. and Winser, K. J. (1989) Comment on “The effect of strong velocity shears on incoherent scatter spectra: A new interpretation of unusual high latitude spectra”. Geophysical Research Letters, 16 (4). pp. 337-338. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL016i004p00337

Lockwood, M., Sandholt, P. E. and Cowley, S. W. H. (1989) Dayside auroral activity and magnetic flux transfer from the solar wind. Geophysical Research Letters, 16 (1). pp. 33-36. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL016i001p00033

Lockwood, M., Suvanto, K., Winser, K.J., Cowley, S.W.H. and Willis, D.M. (1989) Incoherent scatter radar observations of non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions in the auroral F-region. Advances in Space Research, 9 (5). pp. 113-118. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(89)90348-7

Lockwood, M., Sandholt, P.E., Cowley, S.W.H. and Oguti, T. (1989) Interplanetary magnetic field control of dayside auroral activity and the transfer of momentum across the dayside magnetopause. Planetary and Space Science, 37 (11). pp. 1347-1365. ISSN 00320633 doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(89)90106-2

Lockwood, M., Cowley, S.W.H., Clauer, C.R., Todd, H., Crothers, S.R. and Willis, D.M. (1989) Ion flows and heating at a contracting polar-cap boundary: GISMOS observations indicating viscous-like interaction on the flanks of the magnetotail. Advances in Space Research, 9 (5). pp. 39-44. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(89)90337-2

Clauer, C.R., Kelly, J.D., Lockwood, M., Robinson, R.M., Ruohoniemi, J.M., de la Beaujardiere, O. and Hakkinen, L. (1989) June 1987 GISMOS experiment: Preliminary report on high time resolution, multi-radar measurements. Advances in Space Research, 9 (5). pp. 29-33. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(89)90335-9

Lockwood, M. and Smith, M. F. (1989) Low-altitude signatures of the cusp and flux transfer events. Geophysical Research Letters, 16 (8). pp. 879-882. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL016i008p00879

Winser, K.J., Jones, G.O.L., Williams, P.J.S. and Lockwood, M. (1989) Observations of large field-aligned flows of thermal plasma in the auroral ionosphere. Advances in Space Research, 9 (5). pp. 57-63. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(89)90341-4

Winser, K. J., Lockwood, M., Jones, G. O. L. and Suvanto, K. (1989) Observations of nonthermal plasmas at different aspect angles. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94 (A2). pp. 1439-1449. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA094iA02p01439

Farrugia, C.J., Freeman, M.P., Cowley, S.W.H., Southwood, D.J., Lockwood, M. and Etemadi, A. (1989) Pressure-driven magnetopause motions and attendant response on the ground. Planetary and Space Science, 37 (5). pp. 589-607. ISSN 00320633 doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(89)90099-8

Winser, K.J., Lockwood, M., Jones, G.O.L. and Suvanto, K. (1989) Radar observations of non-thermal plasmas at different aspect angles. Advances in Space Research, 9 (5). pp. 107-112. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(89)90347-5

Lockwood, M. and Freeman, M. P. (1989) Recent Ionospheric Observations Relating to Solar-Wind--Magnetosphere Coupling [and Discussion]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 328 (1598). pp. 93-105. ISSN 1364-503X doi: 10.1098/rsta.1989.0026

Etemadi, A., Cowley, S.W.H. and Lockwood, M. (1989) The effect of rapid changes in ionospheric flow on velocity vectors deduced from radar beam-swinging experiments. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 51 (2). pp. 125-138. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(89)90112-8

Suvanto, K., Lockwood, M. and Fuller-Rowell, T. J. (1989) The influence of anisotropic F region ion velocity distributions on ionospheric ion outflows into the magnetosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94 (A2). pp. 1347-1358. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA094iA02p01347

1988

Quegan, S., Gill, R.S. and Lockwood, M. (1988) Comparisons between EISCAT observations and model calculations of the high latitude ionosphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 50 (12). pp. 1057-1076. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(88)90095-5

Todd, H., Cowley, S.W.H., Etemadi, A., Bromage, B.J.I., Lockwood, M., Willis, D.M. and Lühr, H. (1988) Flow in the high latitude ionosphere: measurements at 15s resolution made using the EISCAT ‘Polar’ experiment. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 50 (4-5). pp. 423-446. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(88)90026-8

Lockwood, M., Cowley, S.W.H., Todd, H., Willis, D.M. and Clauer, C.R. (1988) Ion flows and heating at a contracting polar-cap boundary. Planetary and Space Science, 36 (11). pp. 1229-1253. ISSN 00320633 doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(88)90076-1

Lockwood, M., Smith, M. F., Farrugia, C. J. and Siscoe, G. L. (1988) Ionospheric ion upwelling in the wake of flux transfer events at the dayside magnetopause. Journal of Geophysical Research, 93 (A6). pp. 5641-5654. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA093iA06p05641

Jones, G. O. L., Williams, P. J. S., Winser, K. J., Lockwood, M. and Suvanto, K. (1988) Large plasma velocities along the magnetic field line in the auroral zone. Nature, 336 (6196). pp. 231-232. ISSN 0028-0836 doi: 10.1038/336231a0

Farmer, A.D., Lockwood, M., Fuller-Rowell, T.J., Suvanto, K. and Løvhaug, U.P. (1988) Model predictions of the occurrence of non-Maxwellian plasmas, and analysis of their effects on EISCAT data. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 50 (4-5). pp. 487-499. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(88)90030-X

Lockwood, M. and Cowley, S.W.H. (1988) Observations at the magnetopause and in the auroral ionosphere of momentum transfer from the solar wind. Advances in Space Research, 8 (9-10). pp. 281-299. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(88)90142-1

Lockwood, M. and Winser, K.J. (1988) On the determination of ion temperature in the auroral F-region ionosphere. Planetary and Space Science, 36 (11). pp. 1295-1304. ISSN 00320633 doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(88)90080-3

Todd, H., Cowley, S.W.H., Lockwood, M., Willis, D.M. and Lühr, H. (1988) Response time of the high-latitude dayside ionosphere to sudden changes in the north-south component of the IMF. Planetary and Space Science, 36 (12). pp. 1415-1428. ISSN 00320633 doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(88)90008-6

Lockwood, M., Suvanto, K., St.-Maurice, J.-P., Kikuchi, K., Bromage, B.J.I., Willis, D.M., Crothers, S.R., Todd, H. and Cowley, S.W.H. (1988) Scattered power from non-thermal, F-region plasma observed by EISCAT—evidence for coherent echoes? Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 50 (4-5). pp. 467-485. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(88)90029-3

Yau, A. W. and Lockwood, M. (1988) Vertical ion flow in the polar ionosphere. In: Moore , T. E. , Waite, J. H. , Moorehead , T. W. and Hanson, W. B. (eds.) Modeling Magnetospheric Plasma. AGU Monograph, 44 (44). American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C., U.S.A., pp. 229-240. ISBN Print: 9780875900704. On Line: 9781118664414 doi: 10.1029/GM044p0229

Etemadi, A., Cowley, S.W.H., Lockwood, M., Bromage, B.J.I., Willis, D.M. and Lühr, H. (1988) The dependence of high-latitude dayside ionospheric flows on the North-South component of the IMF: A high time resolution correlation analysis using EISCAT “Polar” and AMPTE UKS and IRM data. Planetary and Space Science, 36 (5). pp. 471-498. ISSN 00320633 doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(88)90107-9

1987

Lockwood, M., Bromage, B. J. I., Horne, R. B., St-Maurice, J.-P., Willis, D. M. and Cowley, S. W. H. (1987) Non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions observed using EISCAT. Geophysical Research Letters, 14 (2). pp. 111-114. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL014i002p00111

Winser, K. J., Lockwood, M. and Jones, G. O. L. (1987) Non-thermal plasma observations using EISCAT: Aspect angle dependence. Geophysical Research Letters, 14 (9). pp. 957-960. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL014i009p00957

Lockwood, M. and Fuller-Rowell, T. J. (1987) The modelled occurrence of non-thermal plasma in the ionospheric F-region and the possible consequences for ion outflows into the magnetosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, 14 (4). pp. 371-374. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL014i004p00371

1986

Todd, H., Bromage, B. J. I., Cowley, S. W. H., Lockwood, M., van Eyken, A. P. and Willis, D. M. (1986) EISCAT observations of bursts of rapid flow in the high latitude dayside ionosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, 13 (9). pp. 909-912. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL013i009p00909

Lockwood, M., van Eyken, A. P., Bromage, B. J. I., Willis, D. M. and Cowley, S. W. H. (1986) Eastward propagation of a plasma convection enhancement following a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field. Geophysical Research Letters, 13 (1). pp. 72-75. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL013i001p00072

Waite, J. H., Moore, T. E., Chandler, M.O., Lockwood, M., Persoon, A., and Suguira, M. (1986) Ion energization in upwelling ion events. In: Chang, T.,, Hudson, M.K., Jasperse, J.R., Johnson, R.G., Kintner, P.M. and Schultz, M. (eds.) Ion Acceleration in the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere. AGU Monograph, 38. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., pp. 61-67. ISBN Print: 9780875900636, On-line: 9781118664216 doi: 10.1029/GM038p0061

Lockwood, M. (1986) Low-energy ion flows into the magnetosphere. Advances in Space Research, 6 (3). pp. 63-77. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(86)90318-2

Lockwood, M., van Eyken, A.P., Bromage, B.J.I., Waite, J.H., Moore, T.E. and Doupnik, J.R. (1986) Low-energy ion outflows from the ionosphere during a major polar cap expansion — evidence for equatorward motion of inverted-V structures. Advances in Space Research, 6 (3). pp. 93-101. ISSN 02731177 doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(86)90321-2

Moore, T. E., Waite, J. H., Lockwood, M. and Chappell, C. R. (1986) Observations of coherent transverse ion acceleration. In: Chang, T.,, Hudson, M.K., Jasperse, J.R., Johnson, R.G., Kintner, P.M. and Schultz, M. (eds.) Ion Acceleration in the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere. AGU Monograph, 38. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., pp. 50-55. ISBN Print: 9780875900636, On-line: 9781118664216 doi: 10.1029/GM038p0050

Waite, J.H., Lockwood, M., Moore, T.E., Chandler, M.O., Horwitz, J. and Chappell, C.R. (1986) Solar wind control of the geomagnetic mass spectrometer. In: Kamide, Y. and Slavin, J.A. (eds.) Solar wind - magnetosphere coupling. Astrophysics and Space Science Library (126). Terra Scientifica, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 707-716. ISBN 9027723036 (Reidel)

Horwitz, J. L., Lockwood, M., Waite, J. H., Moore, T. E., Chappell, C. R. and Chandler, M. O. (1986) Transport of accelerated low-energy ions in the polar magnetosphere. In: Chang, T.,, Hudson, M.K., Jasperse, J.R., Johnson, R.G., Kintner, P.M. and Schultz, M. (eds.) Ion Acceleration in the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere. AGU Monograph, 38. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., pp. 56-60. ISBN Print: 9780875900636, On-line: 9781118664216 doi: 10.1029/GM038p0056

Moore, T. E., Lockwood, M., Chandler, M. O., Waite, J. H., Chappell, C. R., Persoon, A. and Sugiura, M. (1986) Upwelling O+ ion source characteristics. Journal of Geophysical Research, 91 (A6). pp. 7019-7031. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA091iA06p07019

Willis, D.M., Lockwood, M., Cowley, S.W.H., Van Eyken, A.P., Bromage, B.J.I., Rishbeth, H., Smith, P.R. and Crothers, S.R. (1986) A survey of simultaneous observations of the high-latitude ionosphere and interplanetary magnetic field with EISCAT and AMPTE-UKS. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 48 (9-10). pp. 987-1008. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(86)90071-1

1985

Moore, T. E., Chappell, C. R., Lockwood, M. and Waite, J. H. (1985) Superthermal ion signatures of auroral acceleration processes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 90 (A2). pp. 1611-1618. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA090iA02p01611

Lockwood, M., Chandler, M. O., Horwitz, J. L., Waite, J. H., Moore, T. E. and Chappell, C. R. (1985) The cleft ion fountain. Journal of Geophysical Research, 90 (A10). pp. 9736-9748. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA090iA10p09736

Horwitz, J. L. and Lockwood, M. (1985) The cleft ion fountain: A two-dimensional kinetic model. Journal of Geophysical Research, 90 (A10). pp. 9749-9762. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA090iA10p09749

Lockwood, M., Moore, T. E., Waite, J. H., Chappell, C. R., Horwitz, J. L. and Heelis, R. A. (1985) The geomagnetic mass spectrometer— mass and energy dispersions of ionospheric ion flows into the magnetosphere. Nature, 316 (6029). pp. 612-613. ISSN 0028-0836 doi: 10.1038/316612a0

Lockwood, M., Waite, J. H., Moore, T. E., Johnson, J. F. E. and Chappell, C. R. (1985) A new source of suprathermal O+ions near the dayside polar cap boundary. Journal of Geophysical Research, 90 (A5). pp. 4099-4116. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA090iA05p04099

1984

Lockwood, M., Farmer, A.D., Opgenoorth, H.J. and Crothers, S.R. (1984) EISCAT observations of plasma convection and the high-latitude, winter F-region during substorm activity. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 46 (6-7). pp. 489-499. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(84)90067-9

Farmer, A.D., Lockwood, M., Horne, R.B., Bromage, B.J.I. and Freeman, K.S.C. (1984) Field-perpendicular and field-aligned plasma flows observed by EISCAT during a prolonged period of northward IMF. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 46 (6-7). pp. 473-488. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(84)90066-7

Lockwood, M. (1984) Simplified estimation of ray-path mirroring height for HF radiowaves reflected from the ionospheric F-region. IEE Proceedings F Communications, Radar and Signal Processing, 131 (2). pp. 117-125. ISSN 01437070 doi: 10.1049/ip-f-1.1984.0020

Lockwood, M. (1984) Thermospheric Control of the Auroral Source of O+Ions for the Magnetosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 89 (A1). pp. 301-315. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/JA089iA01p00301

1983

Lockwood, M. (1983) Field-aligned plasma flow in the quiet, mid-latitude ionosphere deduced from topside soundings. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 45 (1). pp. 1-14. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/S0021-9169(83)80002-6

Lockwood, M. (1983) Simple M-factor algorithm for improved estimation of the basic maximum usable frequency of radio waves reflected from the ionospheric F-region. IEE Proceedings F Communications, Radar and Signal Processing, 130 (4). pp. 296-302. ISSN 01437070 doi: 10.1049/ip-f-1.1983.0049

Lockwood, M. (1983) Simplified evaluation of propagation characteristics for HF radiowaves reflected from the ionospheric F2 layer. In: Third International Conference on Antennas and Propagation (ICAP 83) , 12-15 April 1983, Norwich, UK, pp. 233-237. (IEE Conference Publication 219, Part 2 (Propagation),)

1982

Lockwood, M. and Titheridge, J.E. (1982) Departures from diffusive equilibrium in the topside F-layer from satellite soundings. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 44 (5). pp. 425-440. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(82)90049-6

Bradley, P.A. and Lockwood, M. (1982) Simplified estimation of HF sky-wave mode reliability. In: Second Conference on Hf Communication Systems and Techniques, 15-17 February 1982, pp. 60-64. (Proc. Second Conference on HF Communication Systems and Techniques, IEE conference publication, no. 206. )

Lockwood, M. (1982) Thermal ion flows in the topside auroral ionosphere and the effects of low-altitude, transverse acceleration. Planetary and Space Science, 30 (6). pp. 595-609. ISSN 00320633 doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(82)90168-4

1981

Lockwood, M. and Titheridge, J. E. (1981) Ionospheric origin of magnetospheric O+ ions. Geophysical Research Letters, 8 (4). pp. 381-384. ISSN 00948276 doi: 10.1029/GL008i004p00381

Lockwood, M. (1981) A simple model of the effects of the mid-latitude total ion trough in the bottomsideFlayer on HF radiowave propagation. Radio Science, 16 (3). pp. 385-391. ISSN 00486604 doi: 10.1029/RS016i003p00385

1980

Bradley, P.A. and Lockwood, M. (1980) Ionospheric predictions for HF radio systems: the future. In: 27th Meeting of the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel of NATO/AGARD, 28-31 October, 1980, Pozzuoli, Italy, (32)1-(32)13. (The Physical Basis of the Ionosphere in the Solar-terrestrial System, AGARD Conf. Proc. 295,)

Lockwood, M. and Mitchell, V.B. (1980) Oblique h.f. radiowave propagation in the main trough region of the ionosphere. Radio and Electronic Engineer, 50 (11-12). pp. 559-566. ISSN 00337722 doi: 10.1049/ree.1980.0082

Lockwood, M. (1980) The bottomside mid-latitude ionospheric trough. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 42 (7). pp. 605-615. ISSN 00219169 doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(80)90095-1

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